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Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 2

Chapter 2 notes from miller& levine biology text book
STUDY
PLAY
atoms
the building blocks of matter
proton
positivly charged part of an atom in the nucleus
neutron
part of atom with no charge in the nucleus
electron
negatively charged particle of an atom that orbits around the nucleus and is 1/1840 the size of a proton
element
a pure substance with only one type of atom
compound
two or more elements chemicaly combined
ionic bonds
when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other
covalent bonds
when electrons are shared between two atoms
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
polar
one end is positive, the other is negative
hydogen bonds
hold water molecules, not as strong as chemical bonds but strongest a molecule can form
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
mixture
2 or more elements or compounds physically mixed but not chemically combined nd it can be seperated
solution
water and a dissolved substance
solute
what is being dissolved
solvent
what it is being dissolved in
suspension
water and a non-disolved material
pH scale
scale that describes how acidic or basic a substance is
acid
0-6.5 on the pH scale
base
7.5-14 on the pH scale
neutral substance
6.5-7.5 on the pH scale
carbon
an element that can bond with many elements and form unlimited chains
macromolecules
large molecules formed from many small molecules
4 components of living things
carbohydrates; lipids; nucleic acids; proteins
carbohydrates
major source of energy for most living things
monosaccharide
single sugar
polysaccharide
many sugars linked
lipids
used to store energy
nucleic acids
store and transmit genitic information ex: RNAand DNA
proteins
regulate cell processes like timing and order of how things work, made of amino acids
chemical reaction
process that changes or transforms elements or compounds
reactent
what goes into the reaction
product
what comes out of a chemical reaction
activation energy
the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
catalyst
speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
acts like a catalyst in living things because it speeds up reactions in cells