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JTC 355 Exam 3
Terms in this set (62)
The Media Strategy
A media strategy involves analyzing and choosing media for an advertising and marketing campaign.
Reach is the number of people, households, or businesses in a target audience exposed to a media vehicle or message schedule at least one time during a given time period.
Frequency, which is the average number of times an individual, household, or business within a particular target market is exposed to a particular advertisement within a specified time period.
Opportunities to See (OTS)
Opportunities to see (OTS) identifies the cumulative exposures achieved in a given time period.
Gross Rating Points
Gross rating points (GRP) measure of the impact or intensity of a media plan. GRPs are calculated by multiplying a vehicle's rating by the frequency or number of insertions of an advertisement.
Cost is a measure of overall expenditures associated with an advertising program or campaign.
cost per thousand
CPM = (cost of media buy / total audience) x 1,000
The printed page—in magazines and newspapers—provides a unique, flexible medium for advertising creativity. A growing number of print magazines and newspapers have developed digital versions of materials that can be viewed on computers, tablets, and smartphones.
Magazines have proliferated even as the problems of declining readership have occurred.
Although business-to-business marketers are increasingly using other mediums, trade journals and business magazines still remain an effective method of reaching their target markets.
Advantages of Magazine Advertising
• High market segmentation
• Target audience interest by magazine
• High color quality
• Special features available
• Long life
• Prestige at an efficient cost
• Read during leisure time
Disadvantages of Magazine Advertising
• Declining readership
• High level of clutter
• Long lead time
• Low flexibility
• High cost
The newspaper is a mass medium that at one time almost everybody read. It offers great flexibility, which assists creativity, and its printed message lasts longer than ads in electronic media.
Advantages of Newspaper Advertising
• Geographic selectivity
• High flexibility
• High credibility
• Strong audience interest
• Longer copy/message possible
• Cumulative volume discounts
• Excellent location for coupons and special-response features
Disadvantages of Newspaper Advertising
• Short life span
• Poor print and color quality
• Internet classified competition
• Few young people read newspapers
• Overall readership is declining
Radio and Television
TV advertising can be done at the national, regional, or local level and can take the form of program sponsorships, segment sponsorships, and spots of varying lengths.
To determine which shows to buy, media buyers select the most efficient ones for their target audience.
Advantages of Television Advertising
• High reach
• High frequency potential
• Low cost per contact
• Quality creative opportunities
• Impact and prestige
• High intrusion value
• Segmentation possibilities through cable
Disadvantages of Television Advertising
• Channel surfing during commercials
• Short amount of copy
• Limited selectivity
• High cost per ad
• Low recall
Radio stations are normally classified by the programming they offer and the audiences they serve.
They may use network or syndicated programs and follow any of a dozen or more popular formats.
Advertisers purchase radio time in one of three forms: local, spot, or network.
Advantages of Radio Advertising
• Lower cost per spot than television
• Low production costs
• Background music can match station format
• High segmentation
• Intimacy which means listeners can develop a closeness to the DJs and other radio personalities
• Creative opportunities
Disadvantages of Radio Advertising
• Short exposure time
• Low attention
• Few national audiences
• Target duplication when several stations use the same format
Web 4.0 has emerged, with key characteristics of customer engagement, cloud operations, and Web participation as necessities. Companies cannot just sell products to individuals and then allow customers to post reviews. Engagement is the business model for Web 4.0.
E-commerce focuses on selling goods and services over the internet. Many types of e-commerce businesses exist, ranging from click-only operations that sell entirely online to bricks-and-clicks that supplement physical store operations with an online presence.
e-commerce sites should be designed to optimize search results. The title tag presents a short line of meta-copy, which is extremely important to search engines.
allow individuals to easily locate merchandise. Product descriptions are important to both a customer-centric design and to search engines. Pictures garner attention more effectively than words.
Most sites have moved to an adaptive design, which automatically adjusts content to the screen size of the device being used to access the webpage. Adaptive design mobile-optimization increases interaction and conversions.
Consistent Customer Experiences
Today's consumers expect a consistent positive experience every time they access a web site.
Positive, consistent customer experiences and quick load-time of pages are key.
Channel integration becomes essential when the business sells through additional channels beyond the web. A company that offers a printed catalog or has a retail store should match the printed catalog with the web catalog.
Blogs, feedback applications, and customer reviews provides ways for e-commerce sites to encourage customers to interact with the website. Facebook and Twitter allow customers to like a brand and become fans. Involvement in social causes that involve customers also creates brand engagement.
• Interactive marketing
• Content and native marketing
• Location-based advertising
• Behavioral targeting
• Blogs and newsletters
• Email marketing
The development of marketing programs that create interplay between consumers and businesses.
The programs feature two-way communication and customer involvement. The internet is an ideal medium.
Interactive marketing assists in targeting individuals with personalized information. It engages the consumer with the product and company.
branded content, consists of providing useful information and product-use solutions to potential customers. It focuses on authentic content. It should be relevant and answer problems faced by customers or in some way improve their lives.
is hosted on a third-party site. It appears to look like an article that provides useful information that solves a problem, but the solution depends on purchasing a particular brand of a product or service. Native advertising is paid advertising. It appears in the form of an article or blog piece.
a brand sponsors the content of a blogger or related website. Marketing professionals hope that potential customers will see the information as valuable, share it with others, and most importantly, purchase the sponsor brand.
Geo-targeting involves reaching customers where they are located based by contacting their mobile communication devices. Creating successful geo-targeting campaigns requires two actions.
First, consumers should be in control of the engagement. They opt-in for the app. Second, the brand should provide a discount or something of value to consumers.
Remarketing re-engages individuals who have visited a site but did not make purchases. Remarketing ads should be customized to the products, or similar products, that were viewed on a website or those placed in a shopping basket or on wish list
Behavioral targeting utilizes web data to identify these individuals. Behavioral targeting can occur in three different ways. It can be based on
• Pages a person visits on the Internet
• Keyword searches or content read
• Past visits to a site
Email newsletters help to create brand awareness, drive traffic to a website, and spur sales. Newsletters are especially beneficial when consumers sign up to receive them.
includes any digital tool or venue that allows individuals to socialize on the web.
a social structure of individuals and/or organizations that are tied together in some manner.
Social media marketing
the utilization of social media and/or social networks to market a product, company, or brand.
brands different ways of connecting with their audience
provide products that meet their needs, and create a feedback loop that is unprecedented in the history of advertising and IMC. Many companies employ people to monitor social media sites and to develop a web presence.
Major objectives of social media marketing programs:
• Increase traffic and enhance brand image
• Improve search rankings
• Customer intelligence through social listening
• Increase sales and build Brand loyalty
• Prospect new customers and retarget
Social media tips for creative:
• 75% of all mobile date traffic will be video by 2020.
• 47% of the value in a video campaign is delivered in the first 3 seconds
• with Snap ads 60% of awareness is achieved in the first 2 seconds.
Media that reach prospects outside their homes are called out-of-home media. They include outdoor advertising, transit advertising, and street furniture. Outdoor advertising is one of the least expensive per message delivered. It also offers other attractive features: instant broad coverage (reach), very high frequency, great flexibility, and high impact.
Advantages of Outdoor Advertising
• Large, spectacular ads possible
• Able to select key geographic areas
• Accessible for local ads
• Low cost per impression
• Broad reach
• High frequency on major commute routes
• Long life
Disadvantages of Outdoor Advertising
• Short exposure time
• Brief messages
• Limited segmentation possible
• Cluttered travel routes
Public Relations Functions
1. Identify internal and external stakeholders.
2. Assess corporate reputation.
3. Audit corporate social responsibility.
4. Create positive, image-building activities.
5. Prevent or reduce image damage.
A stakeholder is a person or group who has a vested interest in the organization's well-being.
The primary internal stakeholders are the employees and employee groups within the organization.
Company leaders encounter the following external stakeholders:
• Customers who may be strongly influenced by promotional campaigns
• The media
• The local community
• The financial community
• The government
• Special-interest groups
Assessing Corporate Reputation
Company leaders should take the time to conduct surveys and interviews about what people think of the organization. This can be done internally or by an external company.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate social responsibility is the obligation an organization has to be ethical, accountable, and reactive to the needs of society.
A new trend in corporate social responsibility, purpose marketing, or pro-social marketing, involves advertising that focuses on the values, behavior, and beliefs of the company. The messages show how the company or brand operates in a socially responsible fashion.
Positive Image-Building Activities
• Empowerment of employees
• Sponsoring local events
• Selling environmentally safe products
• Outplacement programs for displaced employees
• Support of community events
marketing ties a marketing program in with some type of charity in order to generate goodwill. It can help a firm develop a stronger market presence when brand parity is present.
Cause-related marketing includes the following benefits:
• Additional customers
• Increased profits
• Consumer goodwill for the future
Preventing or Reducing Image Damage
Damage control is the defense of an organization's image when something negative, such as bad publicity, occurs. It includes both reactive and proactive approaches.
Reactive Damage-Control Strategies
- Internet interventions are designed to combat negative word of mouth being spread over the internet. Company members must monitor the internet to see what is being said and respond when something false or negative appears.
Reactive Damage-Control Strategies
Crisis management involves either accepting the blame and offering an apology or refuting the charges in a forceful manner.
Apology Strategy - An apology strategy has five elements:
1. An expression of guilt, embarrassment, or regret
2. A statement recognizing the appropriate behavior and acceptance of sanctions
3. A rejection of the inappropriate behavior
4. Approval of the appropriate behavior with the promise not to violate again
5. An offer of compensation or penance
Corporate advertising is when a company wants to communicate a PR message and control its content. This is paid advertising. It's aimed at increasing awareness of the company and enhancing its image.
Types of corporate advertising:
• Public image advertising: positions the organization as caring about employees, environment, community, customers;
• Public interest advertising: Healthcare, safety and environmental interests;
• Advocacy advertising: political and social issues.
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