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AP World Unit 5 Questions
Terms in this set (63)
1. Who was Captain Cook? Where did his fame come from? P.582
The captain of The Endeavor, a three year journey that was one of the first to sail around the entire world. He accomplished this by charting the Pacific Ocean, thus facilitating future European voyages to such places as Hawaii, New Zealand, and Australia. He also carried out important astronomical observations.
2. What are the characteristics of the Scientific Revolution? p. 583
the revolutionary development in 18th century science, which increased political and military power in Europe and strengthening the foundations of medicine, mathematics, and astronomy, and rejecting Catholic theology.
3. What was the foundation of new science? P. 583
The scientific method
4. Who was Isaac Newton? What were his contributions to science? P. 584-85
He did more than anyone to create a systematic new architecture for science. He described a predictable natural world in which all matter exerts gravitational attraction in inverse proportion to mass and distance AKA The Universal Law of Gravitation. He also worked on and led to the development of a much more powerful telescope, and differential calculator
5. How was the scientific revolution and the economy linked together? P. 583
Most of these followers of "new science were funded partly by patronage from the European monarchs, as said practical applications of new science good increase political and military power of Europeans on the "world stage". The middle classes involvement in science as a vocation also greatly grew in this time, strengthening the economy.
6. How did supporters of the scientific revolution and scientist view religion? P. 585
Most supporters of scientific revolution were also very loyal to their religions. Isaac Newton was a devout christian, and those who adopted Newton's outlook tended to see the universe as a self functioning outcome of gods perfect act of creation.
7. What was the Agricultural Revolution? Where did it take place? How were peasants treated during this era? P. 588
The agricultural revolution was a time of strong period of technological advancement in farming practices. This revolution took place all across Europe, particularly in great Britain. As usual, the overall well-being of the peasant class was deemed much less important in terms of technological advancements and profits.
8. Who was Thomas Hobbes? What were his views? Pg 590
Demonstrated the growing optimism of the Enlightenment with John Locke, applied the Frenchman's method of deductive reasoning to the question of how best to sustain political order in human society. He argued that in the state of nature, anarchy prevails, and life is "nasty, brutish, and short."
9. Who was John Locke? What were his views? P. 590
Philosopher who applied Bacon´s inductive reasoning to the study of politics and argued that a stable social order is based on a contract between rulers and ruled and requires the safeguarding of ¨life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness¨
10. Who was Montesquieu? What were his views? P. 591
A French thinker who was influenced by English constitutional though, who traveled to England to observe its very constitutional system. Wrote the book The Spirit of The Laws in which he argued for limitations on the power of government and a rational distribution of power between different social classes.
11. Describe Adam Smith's theory on economic productivity 0.591
Laissez Faire, aka the free market
12. What country was the most important to the spread of the Enlightenment? What city was at the center? P. 591
13. What was the role of women during the Enlightenment? P. 592-593
At this time: Ideas of equality and freedom did not apply to women, Women did not participate in public life like men, Women were limited to home and the family
Small groups of women began the push and spoke out during The Enlightenment
14. Which social class n France did the Enlightenment have the greatest impact on? P. 593
The bourgeois aka The Middle Class in France
15. Describe the natives of Australia p. 603
Rich and complex religious and artistic traditions, hunter-gatherers, knew the land, no metal tools, no hierarchical political system, no immunity to Afro-Eurasian diseases.
16. Who was Simon Bolivar? What European Revolution inspired his desire to liberate South America? P. 608
Part of a Creole Family who became wealthly
Who Organized Revolutions by Educating Himself and Gained the Nickname The Liberator, who led movements through Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru . He inspired by The French Revolution.
17. Where was Simon Bolivar from? P. 610
18. When did Bolivar drive the Spanish out of Peru? P. 610
19. How did the Enlightenment influence Latin American and Caribbean revolutionaries? P. 610
Bolíviar visited France at the Height of the Revolution and Enlightenment. Seeing post revolutionary France caused him to be inspired to hold his own Revolution. The ideals of liberty, equality and free opportunity is was caused the revolutions.
20. What role did native Americans (Indians) play in the French and Indian War P. 610
Natives fought and lost with the French against the British. It also led to Native Uprisings against the British causing the British to restrain the colonists from expanding past the Appalachian Mountains.
21. What enlightenment values did the American Constitution not fully achieve?P. 610
It continued to allow slavery and not equal rights for women. It did not achieve the full ¨equality¨.
22. What enlightenment thinker's ideas were written into the Declaration of Independence? P. 612
John Locke´s idea of the ¨consent of the governed¨
23. What treaty officially gave American Colonize independence from England? What year? P. 613
The Declaration of Independence in 1776A
24. Who were the philosophes? How did the impact the French revolution? Pg 618
French intellectuals who promoted Enlightenment principle. They allowed it to spread
25. What military leader took power during the final stages of the French Revolution? Pg 618
26. Describe the Estates General? Was it fair and equal? How was it divided? Pg. 619
One vote per estate, no estates 1 and 2 always agreed outvoting the majority. Divided up 1%-1%-98% each group being equal when it comes to the amount of votes.
27. Describe the National Assembly's "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" P. 619-620
the basic rights are ¨liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression¨, all citizens are eligible to government positions, taxation will be just, payments to the Catholic Church were eliminated.
28. Describe the role of Women during the French Revolution? How important were they during the revolution? What actions did they take? P. 620
29. What was Robespierre's vision? P. 621
The leader of Jacobin who headed the Committee of Public safety, ruled by decree and set into motion the Reign of Terror. Based on the philosophy of Rousseau, a legitimate state expressed by the general will of the people
30. Who were the Jacobin? What were the results of their rule? What countries challenged them during their rule? P. 622
The most radical republican faction in The National Convention. They organized a military force that saved the republic, but their leader, Maximilien Robespierre, head of the Committee of Public Safety, ruled by decree and set into motion the Reign of Terror. The beheading of over 40,000, and a dictatorship under Robespierre. Prussia and Austria
31. What historical empire did Napoleon get inspiration from? P. 623
32. What territory did Napoleon conquer? What territory was he unable to conquer? P. 626
Unable: Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Russia
Able: Iberia, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Germany
33. What was the deciding factor that led to independence in Haiti? P. 628
34. What was Toussaint L'Ouverture? What revolution did he lead? Why is he important? P. 628
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. Under his military and political leadership, Haiti gained political leadership, Haiti gained independence and abolished slavery, becoming the first black-ruled republic in the Americas; He died in exile in France.\
35. What South American country was first to gain its independence from Spain? P. 630
36. What tactics did Latin American revolutionary leader use to gain their independence? P. 629
37. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by changes in what? P.642
38. How did the Industrial Revolution start? P. 643-44
It started with developments in energy, communication, transportation, and efficiency. Population increased and it correlated with the growth in imperialism
39. Where did the Industrial Revolution start? When did it take place? P.644
Mid 1700´s. Across Europe and America, mainly in Britain
40. As the Industrial Revolution became a global process, industrial nations developed what? P. 644
Improvements in transportation and communication, created a worldwide market. Industrial production outstripped domestic demand, causing nations to seek more markets
41. Who was James Watt? What did he develop? P. 644
Scottish inventor who developed the world´s first powerful and cost-effective steam engine; one of the most important contributors to Britain´s Industrial Revolution
42. What industry was most affected by the early changes during the industrial revolution? What changes happened within this industry? P. 645
43. Why did transportation boom during this time period?
Due to the invention of railroads and steamboats.
44. What caused the shift from water to rail transportation? P. 646
It was more efficient and it was also inexpensive making it a great alternative
45. What effects did the steam ship have on transportation? P. 646
It had improved transportation, reduced time and costs. The U.S. benefited the most, with The Mississippi, Also allowed trade across the Atlantic and Pacific. The Mediterranean and Suez Canal also benefited.
46. How did the textile industry affect India? P. 646-47
England took cotton from India. Partly because of the lower cost of factory made textiles, and tariffs lead to India being industrialized. Unemployed Indians fled to the countrysides.
47. Who was Muhammad Ali (not the boxer!) How did he finance the industrialization of his country? P. 648
1. Egyptian ruler who attempted to modernize his country´s economy by promoting cotton cultivation and textile manufacturing and by sending young Egyptians to study in Europe.
2. Through the cotton industry, he was able to pay for railroads, factories, and guns, while sending sending science and engineering students to study in France.
48. How did the middle and upper class view the poor in England? P. 651
As lesser people. They has no power to vote or influence power/policy.
49. Who became the dominant power in Central Europe? P. 653
50. Who was Karl Marx? What were his ideas?
German author and philosopher who founded the Marxist branch of Socialism; wrote the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
51. Who was Darwin? What were his ideas? P. 661
English Natural Historian, Geologist, and Proponent of The Theory of Evolution. Believed in Social Darwinism and Survival of The Fittest.
52. What is Opium? How did the British East India Company use it to their advantage in China? What were its affects? P. 675-76
An addicting drug made out of poppy, that was also a strong painkiller. Because it was addictive it allowed The British East India Company to have a constant market because it was addictive and create their own demand. Addicts neglect their own health and only care about the drug. It led to the opium wars, and England gained control in China.
53. In what ways did Britian and Queen Victoria impose unequal rule over China? P. 684
54. What was the Taiping Rebeliion? Was it successful why or why not? P. 677
(1850-1864) Massive rebellion against the Qing led by Hong Xiuquan, who claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ come to Earth to create a ¨Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace¨. The imperial system was greatly weakened as a result of the uprising. It was not successful because of the 30 million deaths and China´s rulers being even more beholden to European Powers than ever before.
55. What area did France take after the naval defeat of the Qing? P. 679
56. What was the importance of the Sino Japanese War? What territory did it involve? P. 679
It signified China was no longer the most powerful source in Europe. Korea and Taiwan were lost to Japan
57. What was the Boxer Rebellion? P. 681
Chinese uprising triggered by a secret society called The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, a fiercely anti-Western group. Intended to drive out Westerners, it resulted instead in foreign occupation of Beijing. (1898)
58. When did Japan and the United States first meet? P. 681
Commodore Matthew Perry opened up trade when his fleet entered Japan
59. Who controlled India during the 19th Century? 692
60. What was the Indian Revolt of 1857? Who were the Sepoys? How did the revolt start? How did it end? P. 693
1. Revolt of Indian Soldiers against British Officers when they were required to use grease ammunition cartridges they suspected were being used to pollute them and cause them to convert to Christianity. The revolt spread across North India.
2. Sepoys are the 200,000 Indian Soldiers commanded by British Officers. They were essential for British Rule, so their revolt was shocking.
3. England Disbanded The East India Company and abolished the last vestiges of Mughal authority.
61. What were the major causes of the scramble for Africa in the 1880's? P. 737-740
Motives for Imperialism
-White man's burden
62. What was the Berlin Conference? Who called for it? What did it decide? Who got what and why? P. 737-740
1. Conference in 1884 organized by the German Chancellor Otto von Bismark in which representatives of the major European states divided Africa among themselves
2. It decided who got what in Africa
3. British = East, Southwest, and South
Belgium = Congo
French = South
63. What were the differences between Indian Colonialism and African Colonialism? P. 740
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