Terms in this set (39)
the nuclear charge of a nucleus ______ left to right across a period and _____ down a period
Across a period shielding is _______ Down a group shielding _______
increasing atomic radius
down and to the left
increasing ionization energy
up and to the right
up and to the right
metals ____ e- and become ____
nonmetals ___ e- and become _____
cations are ___ than parent
anions are ____ than parent
A negatively charged ion
Description of Atomic Radius Trend
Decreases across a period as increasing nuclear charge pulls in the electrons. Increases down a family as electrons are added to shells further from the nucleus
A positively charged ion
Effective Nuclear Charge
Positive charge that an electron experience from the nucleus.
Energy released when an atom or ion in the gaseous state gains an electron. Increases from left to right and from bottom to top on the Periodic Table.
Distance from the center of an ion's nucleus to its outermost electron
Ionization Energy (IE)
The amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom.
Two different elements that share the same electronic configuration (ex K+, Ar)
Two or more different elements that share the same electronic configuration (ex K+, Ar, Cl-)
An invisible force shield that keeps outer electrons away from the nucleus.
Describes the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a covalent bond
Distance from nucleus to outermost electon
The Periodic Law
The properties of the elements are periodic or repeating functions of their atomic numbers.
What has the greatest influence on elemental properties?
Low Ionization Energy
e- are easily lost and it doesn't require very much energy to remove the electron.
(e- not held onto tightly because they are farther away from the nucleus)
High Ionization Energy
e- not lost easily. It takes a large amount of energy to remove an electron
(e- held onto tightly because they are held closer to the nucleus)
Trend in Ionization Energy
Decreases down a family (as atoms get bigger)
Increases across a period (as atoms get smaller)
Elements with very Negative Electron Affinities
Release a large amount of energy when they gain electrons because they really want electrons. The large negative Electron Affinity corresponds to small atoms.
Elements with only slightly negative Electron Affinities
Release only a small amount of energy when they gain an electron because they don't want the electron as much. The small negative Electron Affinity corresponds to larger atoms.
The atom with the greatest electronegativity
The atom in the third period with the largest radius.
The atom in the Oxygen family with the largest radius.
The atom in the fourth period with the smallest ionization energy
The atom in the Alkaline Earth Metal Family with the smallest ionization energy.
The most reactive Alkali Metal
The family with the highest electronegativity and the most negative electron affinity.
The family with the highest Ionization energies
Elements in this family are not used in the trends
Which is larger, a chlorine atom or a chlorine ion?
Chlorine ion (because it has gained an electron)
Which is larger, a sodium atom or a sodium ion?
Sodium atom (because the ion has lost electrons)
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History of the Atom
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chemistry Section 5.2: Chemical Families, 5.3: Periodic Trends
Topic 5 Electron configuration and periodic trends
Electron Orbitals 5: Periodic Trends