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Health Assessment Exam 4

Terms in this set (133)

Neck and Cervical Spine--Pivotal
Flexion: Bring chin to rest on chest.
Extension: Return head to erect position.
Hyperextension: Bend head back as far as possible.
Lateral flexion: Tilt head as far as possible toward each shoulder.
Rotation: Turn head as far as possible to right and left.

Shoulder--Ball and socket
Flexion: Raise arm from side position forward to position above head.
Extension: Return arm to position at side of the body.
Hyperextension: Move arm behind body, keeping elbow straight.
Abduction: Raise arm to side to position above head with palm away from head.
Adduction: Lower arm sideways and across body as far as possible.
Internal rotation: With elbow flexed, rotate shoulder by moving arm until thumb is turned inward and toward back.
External rotation: With elbow flexed, move arm until thumb is upward and lateral to head.
Circumduction: Move arm in full circle. Circumduction is combination of all movements of ball-and-socket joint.

Elbow--Hinge
Flexion: Bend elbow so lower arm moves toward its shoulder joint and hand is level with shoulder.
Extension: Straighten elbow by lowering hand.
Hyperextension: Bend lower arm back as far as possible. Not all elbows hyperextend.

Forearm--Pivotal
Supination: Turn lower arm and hand so palm is up.
Pronation: Turn lower arm so palm is down.

Wrist--Condyloid
Flexion: Move palm toward inner aspect of the forearm.
Extension: Move fingers so fingers, hands, and forearm are in same plane.
Hyperextension: Bring dorsal surface to hand back as far as possible.
Radial flexion: Bend wrist medially toward thumb.
Ulnar flexion: Bend wrist laterally toward fifth finger; referred to as radial/ulnar deviation.

Fingers--Condyloid hinge
Flexion: Make fist.
Extension: Straighten fingers.
Hyperextension: Bend fingers back as far as possible.
Abduction: Spread fingers apart.
Adduction: Bring fingers together.

Thumb--Saddle
Flexion: Move thumb across palmar surface of hand.
Extension: Move thumb straight away from hand.
Abduction: Extend thumb laterally (usually done when placing fingers in abduction and adduction).
Adduction: Move thumb back toward hand.
Opposition: Touch thumb to each finger of same hand.

Hip--Ball and socket
Flexion: Move leg forward and up.
Extension: Move leg back beside other leg.
Hyperextension: Move leg behind body.
Abduction: Move leg laterally away from body.
Adduction: Move leg back toward medial position and beyond if possible.
Internal rotation: Turn knee toward the inside.
External rotation: Turn knee toward the outside.
Circumduction: Move leg in circle.

Knee--Hinge
Flexion: Bring heel back toward back of thigh.
Extension: Return heel to floor.

Ankle--Hinge
Dorsiflexion: Move foot so toes are pointed upward.
Plantar flexion: Move foot so toes are pointed downward.

Foot Gliding
Inversion: Turn sole of foot medially.
Eversion: Turn sole of foot laterally.

Toes--Condyloid
Flexion: Curl toes downward.
Extension: Straighten toes.
Abduction: Spread toes apart.
Adduction: Bring toes together.