Chapter 13: Prejudice and Stereotypes
Terms in this set (50)
Stereotypes, Prejudice, Discrimination Can be based on any kind of group membership such as:
Race, Gender, Age, Religion, Where you go to college, Sexual orientation, Weight and Attractiveness
The study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of others
A generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members. Categorize people based on obvious features. Rigid categorization that results in a set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group
A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group
Overt behavior directed toward a person simply because of presumed group membership
containing information about a group of people
concerning the behavior of members of that group
Does Prejudice always lead to discrimination?
The Interplay between controlled and automatic thinking
Does Discrimination always indicate Prejudice?
Allport's 5 levels of discrimination
Antilocution: Verbal prejudice
Avoidance: Complete avoidance or increased social space
Discrimination: Taking action to exclude all members of a social group
Physical attack: Acts of violence
Extermination: Lynching, massacres, genocide
Interplay of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
Majority holds stereotypical views of minority
Stereotypes supported by prejudicial feelings
Prejudicial feelings can lead to discriminatory behaviors
Discriminatory behaviors: uphold the social hierarchy and reinforce the current power structure
"Activity on one level makes transition to a more intense level easier It was Hitler's antilocution that led Germans to avoid their Jewish neighbors and erstwhile friends. This preparation made it easier to enact the Nuremberg laws of discrimination which..'
Human genome project
Percentage of our genes that determine our external appearance about 0.01 percent - (1 in 10,000)
Human species quite young in evolutionary terms
"it has simply not had a chance to divide itself into separate biological groups or 'races' in any but the most superficial ways"
What type of category is RACE a part of?
Race is an arbitrary SOCIAL category, not a biological one
Social Cognition Approach: The Importance of Categorization
Humans categorize physical and social worlds
Convenient way of learning about and remembering people and things
All categorization involves some distortion, and oversimplification
People exaggerate the similarities of things in a category (particularly outgroup members)
But Why Do We Have Negative Attitudes Toward Outgroups?
Informational Social Influence from others
Cognitive bias toward remembering what is distinctive
Social Identity Theory
People favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem
Hypothesis 1: Threats to one's self-esteem lead to more ingroup favoritism
Hypothesis 2: Expressing in-group favoritism enhances one's self-esteem
Fein and Spencer (1997)
People received positive or negative feedback on a test of their social skills
Evaluated a job applicant who was either Jewish or not Jewish
Result 1: People who received negative feedback more prejudiced against Jewish applicant
Result 2: People who received negative feedback and evaluated the Jewish applicant (negatively) showed the largest increase in self-esteem
Realistic Conflict Theory
Limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice
Normative Conformity Pressures
People are sometimes rewarded by role models for holding racist views
In What Form Does Racism Persist
Modern racism: Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes, More subtle and ambiguous, Hide prejudice until it is "safe" to express, Best studied with subtle, unobtrusive measures, Also, Modern Sexism
Prejudiced Automatic Thinking
Nonconscious, Unintentional, Involuntary, Effortless
Prejudiced Controlled Thinking
Conscious, Intentional, Voluntary, Effortful
Quick, uncontrollable, negative response
Influence behaviors we're not monitoring or cannot control
Nonverbal behaviors toward an African American (Dovidio et al., 1998)
Identifying weapons (Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002)
Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink (2002)
- Participants played a video game in which they saw photographs of Black or White men holding a gun or another object (e.g., a soda can)
- Pretended they were a policeman; instructed to "shoot" the person if holding a gun, not shoot the person if he was not holding a gun
- Had .6 seconds to respond to each picture
People's conscious beliefs
How they want to feel
Influences behaviors that people are monitoring and can control
Sentences recommended for Black defendant (Dovidio et al., 1998)
In what form does racism persist
Modern racism, More subtle and ambiguous, Hide prejudice until it is "safe" to express, Best studied with subtle unobtrusive measures
Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes
Gender Stereotyping Sexism
Men's ability is credited for their success and lack of effort is credited for their failure.
Women's motivation is credited for their success and lack of ability is credited for their failure.
Gender Differences: Three Questions
What are the gender stereotypes?
What are the actual differences in social behavior between men and women?
Where do these differences come from?
considered in our society as the most "acceptable" form of prejudice
At one time in our society the majority of "White" people believed that their way of life was superior to everyone else (still true in many ways): religion, social structure, appearance, form of speech
How to Reduce Prejudice?
Use Principles from Dissonance Theory
Social Cognition Approach
Break down ingroup/outgroup boundaries
Women are more what?
Men are more what?
Presented with an example that seems to refute existing stereotype.
Most do not change their general belief: Actually strengthened stereotypical belief (Kunda & Oleson, 1997), Disconfirming evidence challenged them to come up with additional reasons for holding on to that belief
Uses Principles from Dissonance Theory
Social Cognition Approach
Break down ingroup/outgroup boundaries
A Common Goal
Informal, One-on-One Contact
Contacts with Several Members of Outgroup
Social Norms of Equality
Reducing Prejudice: Aronson's Jigsaw Puzzle technique
Classroom setting designed to: Reduce prejudice and Raise self-esteem. Small, desegregated groups. Kids depend on each other to learn and do well in class
Summary of How to Reduce Prejudice
Prevent categorization in the first place
Redefine ingroup/outgroup boundaries
Lots and lots of practice, to make the egalitarian response the automatic one
Violence against Women
Rape and Sexual Assault
Increases acceptance of sexual violence: Sexual strips - how we behave in sexual situations
Donnerstein & Berkowitz, 1981: Men watched violent porn - more aggressive to women who gave incorrect answer
Malamuth, 1981: Men and women who watched violent porn reported more violent fantasies
Cycle of Abuse (Walker, 1979)
Phase 1: Tension building- usually verbal (criticism, yelling, swearing, coercion, anger)
Phase 2: Acute battering incident- blow up (physical, emotional, and/or sexual attacks & threats)
Phase 3: Honeymoon period (loving phase)- apologies, gifts, beg for forgiveness, promises
Why Do Men Rape?
- gender differences in social status, power
- desire for power and control, not sex
- pornography/prostitution reinforce male -dominance over women
- rapists hold rape myth acceptance attitudes more intensely than non-rapists
Rape Myth Acceptance (Burt, 1980)
Prejudicial, stereotyped, false beliefs about rape, rape victims, rapists: "Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to."
"In the majority of rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation."
"Many women have an unconscious wish to be raped..."
Social Learning Theory
Bandura (1978): aggression wins approval and status rewards
Ellis (1989): rape learned through: modeling effect, sex-violence linkage effect, rape myth effect, and desensitization effect
Naturally selected—All men have propensity to rape. Parental involvement levels determine: mate choice (for females) and intrasexual competition (for males). Desirable males vs. undesirable males. Educate men about the evolution of their sexuality & women about consequences of their behaviors
Critiques of Evol. Theory of Rape
Places reproductive control/power solely in hands of men
Fails to account for men who rape males, very young girls, pregnant and older women
Stress & physical harm decrease probability of reproductive success
More: Travis, C.B. (2003). Evolution, gender, and rape. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Which Men Rape?
Men who rape (White & Koss, 1993): history of family violence, early and varied sexual history, history of delinquency, acceptance of rape myths, hedonistic and dominance motives, low self-worth, low religiosity, and low empathy