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Civics Benchmark Review & EOC Study Guide
Terms in this set (162)
1. The Enlightenment idea of separation of powers was developed by?
2. John Locke's theory that certain truths in society come from and are governed by nature is known as the theory of?
3. Describe John Locke's theory of social contract.
Citizens surrender some rights (not a state of nature) to live by laws and be protected by a government.
4. What document guaranteed that not even the king or queen was above the law.
Magna Carta- Limited Government-Trial by Jury-Rule of Law
5. Explain the significance of the English Bill of Rights on the development of the U.S. Constitution.
English Bill of Rights - listed guaranteed rights of Englishmen and the anti-federalists wanted to list the rights of Americans before they agreed to ratify the Constitution
6. What was the first document that established self-government by creating a direct democracy in the colonies?
7. This pamphlet was used to persuade members of the Second Continental Congress and justified the ideals and reasons for independence from Great Britain.
Common Sense written by Thomas Paine
8. Give specific examples of colonial responses to English policies.
Boycotts & Protests
• Stamp Act Congress
• Boston Tea Party
• Boycott imported goods
9. What concerns of the colonists' led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence?
King and Parliament did not respect the colonies rights in lawmaking.
10. What were the main complaints/arguments against Britain in the Declaration of Independence?
Unfair Acts (Quartering Act
Stamp Act, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts)
Lack of Representation in Parliament
Dissolved representative houses in colonies
Cut off trade
trial by jury
11. John Locke's theory of _________________ guaranteed that all individuals are entitled to basic rights such as life liberty, and property.
12. Which document outlined the first form of government for the United States? Which system of government did this document create?
Confederation Government Loose form of states-States retained all power
13. List some of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
National Government could not- raise taxes
Could not enforce laws
No national courts, No Chief Executive
14. What is the purpose of the Preamble to the Constitution?
Outlines the purpose and intentions of the United States Constitution.
"We the People..." Government gets consent from the people
15. What was the main argument the Federalists used to support the ratification of the Constitution?
Federalists believed a strong central government was needed to solve the countries problems
16. List the arguments the Anti-Federalists used to against ratifying the Constitution.
Anti-Federalists believed a strong central government would take away newly won rights of citizens
agreed to ratify Constitution with the promise of the addition of Bill of Rights.
17. A legal member of a country is a ___________.
18. Name the two ways a person can become a U.S. citizen. 1. Birth/Natural Born ( Law of Blood or Law of Soil)
1. Birth/Natural Born ( Law of Blood or Law of Soil)
2. Naturalization Process
19. List the steps in the naturalization process.
18 or older
lawful permanent resident for 5 years
read write speak English
good moral character
understanding U.S. Civics
Oath of allegiance
20. What are the major beliefs of the Democrat Party?
a political party that believes that the federal government should take a more active role in people's lives particularly those who are in need
21. What are the major beliefs of the Republican Party?
a political party that believes that the federal government should play a small role in people's lives; they favor lower taxes and less government spending
22. What is a platform?
a document stating the aims and goals of a political party
23. Give an example of media informing the public about government.
Media as a watchdog exposing illegal activity corruption
24. Give an example of how an individual can influence government.
Collect signatures for a petition call, email, write a letter to your local, state, and federal representative
25. Give an example of how interest groups can influence government.
Money, money, money, Endorsements and donating to campaigns Lobby (lobbyist) politicians to influence legislation, political advertisement
26. What is bias?
a preference, opinion or attitude that favors one way of thinking or feeling over another
27. What is symbolism?
the use of something to represent ideas or qualities
28. What is propaganda?
the method of spreading ideas or information for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution a cause, or a person
29. What is the difference between direct democracy and representative democracy?
a form of government in which the power to govern lies directly in the hands of the people rather than through elected representatives
30. Explain the major similarity between socialism and communism.
a form of government in which a single ruling party owns and controls all production and distribution of goods, and in which no private ownership is allowed
31. A type of government in which the leadership is comprised of the few wealthy elite is called a ______.
32. What is monarchy?
a form of government headed by a king or queen who inherits the position, rules for life, and holds power that can range anywhere between limited to absolute
33. What is autocracy?
a form of government where one person has unlimited power ( North Korea, Syria, Cuba)
34. What is a Federal system of government? Give an example.
a system of government where power is shared between a central government and states.
35. What is a confederal system of government? Give an example.
a system of government where power is located with the independent states and there is little power in the central government
36. What is a unitary system of government? Give an example.
a system of government where almost all power is located with the central government
37. What is the term for a system of government in which the power to make and execute laws is held by a parliament?
Parliamentary England (Great Britain)
38. What term means that all citizens are accountable to the law?
Rule of Law
39. Why is rule of law fundamental to the American legal system?
Equal treatment under the law
40. Why is it an obligation or a duty for citizens to follow laws?
To promote the general welfare and to insure domestic tranquility to secure citizens constitutional rights and safety
41. Why do citizens pay taxes? How does this benefit society?
It is a law. Need money to run government.
Government tries to improve society Defense
pay for cultural landmarks, local services, infrastructure
42. Why is it important to have citizens serve on juries?
Protects right of trial by a jury of your peers
43. Order the five rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment.
Freedom of religion
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Press
Freedom of Peaceable Assembly
Freedom to Petition
44. Why was it important to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
To secure the individual rights of citizens that were won during the American Revolution So anti-federalists would ratify the constitution
45. List the rights guaranteed by the 5th amendment
Indictment by grand jury for serious crimes
Protection from Self-Incrimination
46. How do the fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments protect the rights of the accused?
Fourth: 4th - Protects against search and seizures (need warrant or probable cause)
Fifth: Self-Incrimination Due Process
Sixth: speedy and public trial, impartial jury, informed of charges, confront witnesses, legal counsel
Eighth: excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishment
47. Why do you think the Framers included the 2nd amendment with respect to militias?
For the security of a free state
48. Why did the Framers include the 3rd amendment in the Bill of Rights?
Quartering troops was imposed on several occasions as a cost saving measure for the British Government.
49. Explain the difference between the 6th and 7th amendments.
Jury trial 6th- Criminal trial
Jury trial 7th- Civil Trial
50. How does the Ninth Amendment safeguard individual liberties?
Prevents government from claiming the only rights of the people are listed in the Bill of Rights
51. How does the Tenth Amendment reinforce federalism?
Reserved powers to the states
52. Describe the principle of due process of law.
a system of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle in the Fifth Amendment that a person cannot be deprived of life liberty, or property without appropriate legal procedures and protections
53. How does the Bill of Rights help ensure that the U.S. remains a democracy?
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution establishing rights and protections for American citizens
54. What are the two methods of proposing constitutional amendments?
2/3 of congress, 2/3 of States call Constitutional conventions
55. In order for an amendment to be added to the Constitution it must be ____________ by at least ¾ of the states. Ratified by state legislatures
ratified by state legislatures
56. What is the law making branch of Government?
57. Which Article in the U.S. Constitution identifies the powers of the president?
58. Which branch of government is composed of district courts, circuit courts, appellate courts, and other federal courts?
Federal- District Appeals Supreme,
State- County, Circuit, Appeals, Supreme
59. Which goal of the Preamble states that the government should work to protect the country from its enemies?
Provide for the common defense
60. Which goal of the Preamble to U.S. Constitution states that the government should be a better union of states than the one created under the Articles of Confederation?
form a more perfect union
form a more perfect union
61. Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should make laws and establish a system of courts that is fair to all?
62. Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should work to safeguard the freedom of the people?
secure the blessings of liberty to our posterity
63. Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should work to protect the country from its enemies?
Constitution states that the government should work to protect the country from its enemies?
provide for the common defense
64. Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should preserve peace within the country?
insure domestic tranquility
65. What is a lobbyist?
Representative of an interest group who contacts legislators to directly influence government policy
66. Identify the current major political parties?
68. In what founding U.S. document is the principle of "consent of the governed" expressed?
The Declaration of Independence "...that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed."
69. What is the meaning of "We the People" as written in the Preamble to the US Constitution?
Government gets its power from the people and exists to serve them
70. Give examples of how a person's constitutional rights can be limited?
Slander- speaking lies
Libel- publishing lies Can't yell fire in a theatre
Convicted felons may lose some rights
71. The division of powers between three branches of government is called _________________.
Separation of Powers
72. The ability of one branch to limit power of the others is called _______________.
Checks and Balances
73. What is the purpose of checks and balances and separation of powers in the Constitution?
So all government functions are not in one place
to limit power So one branch does not abuse power or become too powerful
74. What is the "highest law of land" in the U.S?
Supreme Court of the United States
75. ___________law refers to the body of law that governs relationships between individuals and settles disputes.
76. ___________law refers to the body of law that regulates the conduct of individuals.
77. ___________law is based on the Constitution and on Supreme Court decisions.
78. __________law governs the behavior of men and women in all branches of the armed forces.
79. Which amendment abolished slavery in the U.S?
80. Which amendment guaranteed due process equal protection under the law and granted rights of citizenship to African Americans?
81. Which amendment guaranteed the right of suffrage regardless of previous condition of servitude?
82. Which amendment ratified in 1920, granted women's suffrage?
83. Which amendment outlawed the use of poll taxes as a requirement for voting? 24th
84. In the wake of the Vietnam War which amendment was added to lower the voting age of U.S. citizens to 18?
85. What Landmark Supreme Court case resulted in the principle of Judicial Review?
Marbury v Madison
86. What Landmark Supreme Court case justified segregation and the principle of "separate but equal"?
Plessy v Ferguson
87. What Landmark Supreme Court case overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision by ruling that separate facilities were not equal and ended segregation in schools?
Brown v Board of Education
88. What Landmark Supreme Court case required states to provide an attorney to those who could not afford representation in court?
Gideon v Wainwright
89. What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that an individual's rights begin at the time of their arrest and required that individuals be notified of these rights?
Miranda v Arizona
90. What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that juveniles accused of crimes receive the same due process as adults?
In re Gault
91. What Landmark Supreme Court case expanded interpretation of the First Amendment right to free speech in schools to also include freedom of expression?
Tinker v Des Moines
92. What Landmark Supreme Court case limited freedom of press in school publications?
Hazelwood v Kulhmeier
93. The Supreme Court ruled in ________that "executive privilege" is only extended when connected to national security.
USA v Nixon
94. What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that the Supreme Court could overrule a state court's decisions on state laws (in regards to Election 2000)?
Bush v Gore
95. When evaluating candidates for office what are examples of things that might influence your decision?
Voting record (incumbent)
Stance on Issues
96. All policies dealing with issues within the United States are considered ____________policy.
97. _______________is the government's plan for interacting with other countries of the world.
98. The policy of _________the income of U.S. citizens to fund government programs for the good of society is an example of domestic policy.
99. Providing monetary aid military assistance or food to nations in need in order to promote peace is an example of ______________policy.
100. This organization is an international assembly of nations to discuss and act on important global issues. United Nations (UN)
Foster international peace
101. This "security alliance" between the United States and many European countries was originally formed to establish a united front against Soviet aggression during the Cold War and now engages in joint security and peacekeeping operations.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
102. This volunteer program provides technical assistance and cultural understanding between the United States and other nations.
103. This UN agency promotes worldwide health to combat the spread of diseases.
World Health Organization (WHO
104. Which UN agency promotes international trade among nations?
World Trade Organization (WTO)
105. What court is known as the "World Court"?
United Nation's International Court of Justice
106. This term describes a way in which the US can enter into an agreement with other nations to resolve conflicts or further relationships.
107. The United States has used this mechanism to punish nations that violate human rights or otherwise threaten the interests of the United States.
108. In a federal system ___________________ powers are shared between the states and the national government.
109. The ability to protect borders is best performed by which level of government.
110. The service of maintaining public libraries is best performed by which level of government.
111. Create a graphic organizer that depicts the levels and functions of the judicial branch at the state level.
112. What are the main sections of the Florida and U.S. Constitutions called?
Preamble & Articles & Amendments (Sections)
113. List the obligations and services provided by the local level of government.
114. List the obligations and services provided by the state level of government.
•Standards for schools
•Florida National Guard
115. List the obligations and services provided by the federal level of government. Provide
•Regulation of food
•water and products
•Food and Drug Administration
•Deliver Mail (Postal Services)
116. In this form of government all citizens in the community vote on all decisions.
117. Voting for representatives to carry out the work of government and make decisions is defined as what form of government?
118. _________is a system of government that believes that society should organize and control the means of production for the welfare of all.
(Capitalism is economic system)
119. __________ is a system of government that believes that the state would own the land capital, labor and make all economic decisions.
(Socialism is economic system)
120. In this form of government a king or queen reigns over a kingdom or empire.
Monarchy "Absolute Monarchy"
121. A form of government in which a few people rule.
122. A dictatorship is an example of this type of government in which one person holds all the power.
123. The type of democratic government that exists in Great Britain is led by a majority of its legislature who then chooses its executive that is called a ___.
124. In what type of government is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme?
125. A ________is a loose association of states.
126. A system of government where powers are shared and divided between the national and state government
127. List the specific powers of the Legislative Branch of government.
Checks over Executive
•Approve Presidential appointments (judges
128. List the specific powers of the Executive Branch of government.
•appoint federal judges (Check over Judicial Branch)
•veto bills from Congress (Check over Legislative Branch) Commander and Chief of armed forces
•Pardon or reprieve
•State of the Union
129. List the specific powers of the Judicial Branch of government.
•Disputes between states
•Declare laws or actions by Executive or Legislative Branch Unconstitutional
130. What are the basic steps of how a bill becomes a law?
•Bill goes to committee
• Approved then to floor to debate
• Each house of congress votes on their version
• Then conference committee combines bills
• Back to each house to vote
• Goes to President
• Signs= Law
• Veto (cancel) need 2/3 congress to become law
131. The sole power to declare war lies with _____?
Congress (legislative Branch)
132. A __________ legislature is a lawmaking body with two houses.
133. What are the two houses of US Congress?
Senate House of Representatives
134. What are the qualifications for members of the House of Representatives?
.25 years old
•U.S. Citizen (Born or Naturalized)
•Live in U.S. for 7 Years
•Live in the state elected
135. What are the qualifications for members of the Senate?
•30 Years old
•U.S. Citizen (born or naturalized)
•Live in U.S. for 9 years
•Live in the state elected
136. What are the qualifications for the presidency as listed by the Constitution of the United States?
•35 years old
•Natural Born Citizen
•Live in U.S. 14 years
137. What is the term limit for the President of the United States?
•4 year term
•2 term limit
138. What are the duties of the Vice President?
President of Senate votes only in a tie
139. Who is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces?
140. What makes up the Executive Office of the President?
President, VP, and Cabinet
141. If you identified a problem in your community, what are the steps that you would take to resolve it?
•Start a Petition
•phone call to representative
142. A (n) _____________issue is one that deals with the community as a whole.
143. What is an example of a current issue?
•Minimum Wage Laws
•Social Security Programs
144. What is an example of a public issue?
•How much to tax
•how to handle youths committing crime
145. What are the three levels of federal courts and what function does each level serve?
•District- Trial court
•Appeals- if you don't like verdict in trial court
•Supreme- petition for Supreme (writ of Certiorari) to hear case, Supreme does not have to hear case
146. What are the two ways a US Constitutional amendment can be proposed?
•2/3 Of Congress
•2/3 of States call a Constitutional Convention
•All 27 Amendments were by 2/3 of Congress
147. What are the two ways that a US Constitutional amendment can be approved?
¾ of State Legislatures Ratify
¾ of State Constitutional Conventions Ratify
Way is determined in the proposed amendment
148. A government program that provides economic and military assistance to another country is called __________________.
149. The Articles of Confederation is a ________ type of government whereas the US Constitution establishes a ________ type of government.
Confederal- Loose association of states
central government has little power
Federal- Shared power between central (federal) government and smaller state governments
150. Article I Section 8, Clauses 1-17 establish ____ powers for Congress while Article I, Section 8, Clause 18 (elastic clause) establishes ____ powers.
Enumerated or expressed powers
151. Powers shared by both the state governments and the federal government such as building roads, collecting taxes, and passing laws are called ____ powers.
152. According to the 10th Amendment to the US Constitution powers not specifically granted to the federal government nor denied to the states are given to the states and called ___ powers
153. List the following choices in order to properly depict the hierarchy (order) of the Florida Court system from least to greatest authority. Circuit Courts, State Supreme Court, District Courts of Appeals, County Courts
154. ___ jurisdiction allows a court to hear a case first.
155. ___ jurisdiction is when the authority to hear a case is shared by multiple courts of the judicial system.
156. ___ jurisdiction is the authority to hear only certain types of cases (bankruptcy family issues, etc.).
157. The power of the court to decide whether a law or presidential action is agreement with the Constitution is called ____. Judicial Review
158. The following description best identifies which constitution The Florida Constitution or the US Constitution? Is fairly short concise, and difficult to amend and has only seven articles.
159. The following description best identifies which constitution The Florida Constitution or the US Constitution? Is longer easy to amend, and grants government the power to oversee education.
The Florida Constitution
160. Which step is missing in the sequence of creating public policy?
Identifying a problem
Selecting a solution
Developing an action plan
Creating possible solutions
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Bill of Rights & Voting Rights Amendments
Test Review Study Part II
Landmark Supreme Court Cases
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