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49 terms

AP Human Geography Chapters 2&3

Chapters 2&3 key terms
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Census
A perodic and official count of a country's population
Demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
Overpopulation
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Global Density
the global population density (of the world)
Arithmetic Density
The population of a country or region expresse as an average per unit area.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Crude Birth Rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population
Natural Increase Rate
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths.
Doubling Time
The time required for a population to double in size.
Total Fertility Rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
Infant Mortality Rate
A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.
Life Expectancy
A firgure indicating how long on average a person be expected to live.
Demographic Transition
Multistage model, based on Western's Europe's experince, of changes in population groth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth rates at a low overall level.
Industrial Revolution
The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialized i late 18th century Europe.
Medical Revolution
A huge, Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Zero Population Growth
A condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines.
Population Pyramid
Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each group (generally five year increments) is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Bundling
Tie babies up in a blanket and hang them up on a tree to die.
Migration
A change in residence intended to be permanet.
Emigration
A , migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
Immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Net-Migration
the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time, divided (usually) per 1,000 inhabitants
Mobiltiy
The state of being in motion
Seasonal Mobility
migration by season (moving during winter to a warmer place, etc.)
International Migration
Human movement involving movement across international boarders.
Internal Migration
Human movement within a nation state
Interregional Migration
Migrating in the same region
Intraregional Migration
Migrating outside of the region which you are currently living in now
Forced Migration
Human migration flows in which the movers has no choice but to relocate
Voluntary Migration
Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived oppurtunity, not becaused they are forced to move
Migration Transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
E.G Ravenstein
Developed the laws of migration
1986 Immigration and Control Act
required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to certain illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and had resided there continuously
made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants (immigrants who do not possess lawful work authorization)
granted a path towards legalization to certain agricultural seasonal workers and immigrants who had been continuously and illegally present in the United States since January 1, 1982
Chain Migration
Pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship lengths
Gravity Model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population per unit area and a dramtic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs.
U.S Immigration and Naturalization Service
agency that oversees immigration and naturalization
Coyote
People who smuggles illegal immigrants to the U.S
U.S Border Control
The United States Border Patrol is a federal law enforcement agency. Their duty is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States and to deter, detect, and apprehend illegal aliens and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry.
Intervening Obstacles
Any forces or factors that may limit human migration
Quota
Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
Brain Drain
Taking intelligent people from another country and bringing them to your country
Guest Workers
Immigrants workers who come here on a short term to work with a visa.
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Remittance
money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countires