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Chapter 6: The Duel for North America, 1608-1763

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Compared with the English colonies, New France was
more autocratically governed
The expansion of New France occurred especially
along the paths of lakes and rivers
Colonial Americans were unhappy after the peace treaty following the "War of Jenkins's Ear" because
it gave the louisbourg fortress they had captured back to France
The original cause of the French and Indian war was
competition between French and English colonistis for land in the Ohio River Valley
The French and Indian War eventually became part of the larger world conflict known as the
Seven Years War
Benjamin Franklin's attempt to create intercolonial unity at the Albany Congress resulted in
rejection of the congress' proposal for colonial home rule by London and by the Individual colonies
The British forces sufered early defeats in the French and Indian War under the overall command of
General Braddock
William Pitt's strategy in the assult on New France finallyy succeeded because
he concentrated British forces on attacking the vital strong points of Quebec and Montreal
The decisive event in the French-British contest for North America was
the British victory in the Battler of Quebec
Among the factors that tended to pomote intercolonial untiy during the French and Indian War was
common language and wartime experience
The French and Indian War weakend interior Indian peoples like the Iroquois and Creeks by
removing their French and Spanish allies from canada and florida
Pontiac's fierce attack on frontier outposts in 1763 had the effect of
convincing the British to keep troops stationed in the colonies
The British Proclamation of 1763
angered colonists who thought that it deprived them of the fruits of victory
The French and Indian War created conflict between the British and the American military because
British officers treated the American colonial militia with contempt
The effect on the colonistis of the French removal from North America was
to reduce the colonies reliance on Britain and increase their sense of independence
Huguenots
French protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France
Louis XIV
Absolute French monarch who reigned for seventy-two years
Beaver
Animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost
Jesuits
French Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians
Coureurs de bois
far-running, high-living French fur trappers
part of a certain British naval officer's anatomy that set off an imperial war with spain
ear
Louisberg
strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759
Ohio River Valley
Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists
Germany
Bloodiest European theater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America
Albany Congress
Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly let to success by his eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry
George Washington
Military aide of British Gnereal Baddock and defender of the frontier after Braddock's defeat
Quebec
Fortress bodly assualted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France
Militia
The "buckskin" colonial soldiers whose military success did nothing to alter British officer's contempt
Indians
Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763
Seven Years War
The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian War was part
Benjamin Franklin
Advocate of colonial unity at a 1754 meeting in upstate New York
Proclamation of 1763
British document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion
Acadians (Cajuns)
French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by the victorious British and shipped to Louisiana
War of Austrian Succession
Conflict that started with the War of Jerkin's Ear and ended with the return of Louisbourg to France
New Orleans
Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi
Pontaic
Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion
General Braddock
Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early stages of their war
Samuel de Champlain
The Father of New France, who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians
Plains of Abraham
Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New World empire also perished
Fort Duquesne
Strategic French stronghold; later renamed after a great British statesmen
George Washington
Milita commander whose frontier skirmish in Pennsylvania touched off a world war
Albany
Site of a meeting that proposed greater unity and home rule among Britian's North American colonies
Seven Years War
Conflict that began with George Washington's skirmish in Ohio and ended with the loss of France's North American Empire
Robert de la Salle
French empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch
William Pitt
Spendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North America