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22 terms

2.4 Review

STUDY
PLAY
confirm
Scientists repeat a study under slightly different circumstances than the original to ______ the hypothesis.
case study
An in-depth investigation
case studies
Scientists are cautious about making generalizations about _____ _____ because they can not always be replicated.
expectations
Taking a placebo is sometimes effective as taking a medication because the participant's _____ affected the results.
phone interviews
What is one method that researches use to conduct surveys?
control group
The group in an experiment that does not receive treatment
hypothesis
an educated guess; the second step in the research process
survey
a series of questions about a particular subject
correlation
A measure of how closely one thing is related to another; used for analyzing and interpreting observation
ethics
Standards for proper and responsible behavior
target population
Whole group that is the subject of the study
stratified sample
Sample in which subgroups of a population are represented proportionally
naturalistic observation
Method of observation people use in their daily lives without realizing it
laboratory observation
Observation method that enables researchers to control the environment
replicated
For the findings of a study to be confirmed, the study must be _____________.
target
Since it is usually impossible to interview every member of a population that is being studied, psychologists select a samples of the ______population.
random sample
In a/an ________, each member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
experimental
Members of the ___________ group in an experiment are the participant who receive the treatment.
longitudinal
Which information is more reliable, the information gained in longitudinal or cross-sectional?
large
A sample is likely to be stratified if it is random and ______.
Stanley Milgram experiment
Hypothesis: Germans were more obedient than the rest of us due to the Holocaust horrors. Ran an experiment where one person was the teacher and the other the learner. He gave a fake high voltage to people who were in another room. Conclusion: 63% complied fully to the highest voltage. Next time, he had his actors fake a heart condition and still 65% complied fully. This shows that we tend to be obedient to people we see as authority figures.
Zimbardo Prison Experiment
Demonstrated the powerful role that the situation can play in human behavior. Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally act in their everyday lives or in other situations. The prisoners, placed in a situation where they had no real control, became passive and depressed. Similar to the real life situation of the events at Abu Graib Prison