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Scientists repeat a study under slightly different circumstances than the original to ______ the hypothesis.

case study

An in-depth investigation

case studies

Scientists are cautious about making generalizations about _____ _____ because they can not always be replicated.


Taking a placebo is sometimes effective as taking a medication because the participant's _____ affected the results.

phone interviews

What is one method that researches use to conduct surveys?

control group

The group in an experiment that does not receive treatment


an educated guess; the second step in the research process


a series of questions about a particular subject


A measure of how closely one thing is related to another; used for analyzing and interpreting observation


Standards for proper and responsible behavior

target population

Whole group that is the subject of the study

stratified sample

Sample in which subgroups of a population are represented proportionally

naturalistic observation

Method of observation people use in their daily lives without realizing it

laboratory observation

Observation method that enables researchers to control the environment


For the findings of a study to be confirmed, the study must be _____________.


Since it is usually impossible to interview every member of a population that is being studied, psychologists select a samples of the ______population.

random sample

In a/an ________, each member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate


Members of the ___________ group in an experiment are the participant who receive the treatment.


Which information is more reliable, the information gained in longitudinal or cross-sectional?


A sample is likely to be stratified if it is random and ______.

Stanley Milgram experiment

Hypothesis: Germans were more obedient than the rest of us due to the Holocaust horrors. Ran an experiment where one person was the teacher and the other the learner. He gave a fake high voltage to people who were in another room. Conclusion: 63% complied fully to the highest voltage. Next time, he had his actors fake a heart condition and still 65% complied fully. This shows that we tend to be obedient to people we see as authority figures.

Zimbardo Prison Experiment

Demonstrated the powerful role that the situation can play in human behavior. Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally act in their everyday lives or in other situations. The prisoners, placed in a situation where they had no real control, became passive and depressed. Similar to the real life situation of the events at Abu Graib Prison

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