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Biology 121 final
Terms in this set (143)
what type of sexual life cycle do plants have?
alternation of generations
what are the three main groups of land plants?
non-vascular, vascular that lack seeds, vascular that have seeds
are fungi genetically more closely related to plants or animals?
what are the four modes of fungi nutrition?
saprophytic, parasitic, predacious, mutualistic
what are the fungi phylums?
chytrids, zygomycota, glomeromycota, ascomycota, basidiomycota
what is the only phylum that the subkingdom parazoa contains?
mouth originates from the second opening that appears during embryonic development
animals that molt
why are arthropods the most successful animal group?
most diverse group and adapted for different environments
what are the characteristics of life?
1. one or more cells
2. requires energy
3. conducts metabolism
4. grow and develop
5. exhibit homeostasis
6. responses to stimuli
an organism which derives its energy from chemicals, and needs to consume other organisms in order to live
what stages are in complete metamorphosis
egg, larval, pupa, adult
what stages are in incomplete metamorphosis
egg, nymphal, adult
what are the four types of asexual reproduction?
fission, budding, fragmentation, parthenogenesis
what is parthenogenesis?
development of an individual from an unfertilized egg
what is apomixis?
asexual reproduction without fertilization in plants
genetic material with a protein coat called a capsid
infectious particles of plants and consist of rna
more simple than viruses and lack hereditary material
what are systematics
scientific study of the kinds and diversity of organisms and the relationships among them
what is nomenclature?
process where scientific names are produced for taxa at all hierarchical levels to provide a common ground in which biologists can communicate and specific taxa
lesser blue crab
red blue crab
ornate blue crab
what is the morphological species concept?
identify/distinguish species using morphological features
who is Theodosius Dobzhansky?
proposed that each species is reproductively isolated from other species
who is Ernst Mayr?
developed the biological species concept
what is the biological species concept?
a species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations whose individuals which are reproductively isolated from other such groups
what are pre-zygotic reproduction barriers?
prevent mating or fertilization
what are post-zygotic reproduction barriers?
prevent development of fertile adults
what is the ecological species concept?
species are defined in terms of their ecological niches, focusing on unique adaptions to particular roles in a biological community
the role and position of living organism in the ecosystem
looks like a camel
sinonyx and pakicetus
dawn horse and equus
what is the evidence to support the theory of evolution?
fossils & the fossil record
what are homoplasious structures?
structure with similar appearance
what are the 6 great geographical regions?
what is convergent evolution?
species independently evolved similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments
what are molecular homologies?
similarity of "master" genes controlling embryonic development
specify segment identity
an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection that increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism
any product of natural selection that increases the fitness of the organism in its environment
multiple forms of a species
an organism matching/blending in with its background and becomes less exposed to predation
a species resembling other species
a form of mutually beneficial convergence between two or more harmful species
a phenomenon that changes the colour of an organism
phenotypic differences between males and females
members of the competitive sex fight among themselves
members of the competitive sex show off for mates and the opposite sex chooses the best display
evolutionary change within a species or population over a short period
formation of new species
the collective changes that transform one species into a different species with different characteristics
the separation of a gene pool into two or more gene pools and then eventually produce one or more new species
the process leading to the formation of new species
occurs when biological population of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange
when new organisms diversify rapidly due to new environmental pressures
establishment of a new population by a small number of individuals
when was earth formed?
4.6 billion years ago
when did first life occur?
3.5 billion years ago
what was the first form of life?
what are the origin of life hypothesizes?
extraterrestrial, reducing atmosphere, deep sea vents
what was needed for living cells to form?
nucleotides and amino acids
what types of organisms were the first ones?
unicellular, prokaryote, extremeophiles
when did oxygen-forming photosynthesis begin?
2.5 billion years ago
when did O2 levels first rise on earth?
2.0 billion years ago
community of microbes forms mats & secretes a mucus that traps sedimentary grains, cementing them into layers
how old is the first eukaryote fossil?
2 billion years ago
what is the endosymbiotic theory?
the theory describes how a large host cell and ingested bacteria could easily become dependent on one another for survival, resulting in a permanent relationship
what did the proterzoic eon entail?
first eukaryotes, first multi cellular eukaryotes, eukaryotes began to evolve
includes paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic eras
what are the different continent shapes?
modern continents, Laurasia & Gondwanaland, Pangea, Rodinia
where are some fossil deposits?
burgess shale, alberta and bc
rapid diversification of most major animal groups marking the start of the Paleozoic era
what were the first plants to colonize land?
what was the first vascular plant to colonize land?
what were the first animals to colonize land?
what percentage of land animals do arthropods make up?
what was the earliest and most primitive limbed vertebrate animal?
acanthostega, an amphibian
where did the comet that killed the dinosaurs land?
how many pre-human mass extinctions were there?
a surviving species that has survived major extinction events and has remained unchanged
study of interactions among organisms and their environment that determines their distribution & abundance
organisms that exist only in one geographical region
what are biodiversity hotspots?
biogeographical regions with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans ex western ghats
studies how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by the environment
concentrates mainly on factors that affect how many individuals of a particular species live in an area
studies how population of species interact and form functional communities. also, how species composition and community structure change over time, particularly after disturbance
studies energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components
what plant is frost a limiting factor for?
what species are temperature a limiting factor for?
eastern pheobe and vampire bats
where is light a limiting factor?
the depth of sea water that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis to occur
an organism that generates its own internal heat
an organism whose body temperature changes with the environment
secrete a calcium carbonate shell and are sensitive to both low and high temperatures because
good for one organism and neutral for the other
one benefits the other is harmed
negative for both
the elimination of one species from a habitat by another species with identical need for resources
the process that permits two or more species to divide certain resources
a form of competition wherein organisms indirectly compete with other organisms for resources by using up resources to limit the resources availability to other organisms
one organism directly prevents other organisms from using the resource
exploitative, apparent, competition
organisms compete indirectly through the consumption of limited resource = individuals depleting a shared resource and both suffering a loss in fitness as a result
interference competition (intraspecific)
individuals interact directly with one another by physical force or intimidation
negative for one positive for the other
positive for one negative for the other
the resources and environmental conditions that an organism requires over its life time
can be defined by how an organism or a population responds to as well alters competition and the distribution of resources
fundamental niche of a species
the range of conditions and resources that could be tolerated and used
where the organism could live
where the organism lives
the elimination of one species from a habitat by another species with identical needs for resources
why don't Balanus and Chthamalus grow together
suggests that no two species with similar requirements for resources could coexist in the same niche without competition driving one to local extinction
outcomes from intense competition
1. one species drives the other to extinction
2. natural selection reduces the competition between the species
a change in the genetic composition of one species in response to genetic change in another
evolutionary arms races
predators and prey may often show an evolutionary pattern called escalation
life has become more dangerous over time
what are the two components of species diversity in a community
1. species richness
2. relative abundance
where immigration and extinction curves cross, an equilibrium number of species is reached
what is ecological succession
a process by which the structure of biological community evolves over time
occurs in life less areas - regions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flow
occurs in areas where a community that previously existed has been removed
includes the biotic communities of organisms in a defined area and the abiotic environment affecting that community
dead plant and animal material and wasteproducts
feed on dead organic material by ingesting it
feed on dead organic material by secreting digestive enzymes into it & absorbing the products of digestion
highly abundant species
play a pivotal role in community dynamics
effect the stability & structure of communities
only reduced number of individuals are left
a model of downward spiral of population decline from which it can not naturally recover
background extinction rate
normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environmental conditions
is a relatively sudden, global decrease in the diversity of large number of species within a relatively short period of geological time
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