Chapter 20 Program Design and Technique for Aerobic Endurance Training
Terms in this set (61)
To improve aerobic endurance performance, training programs must be designed to enhance the function of the ___________, _______________, and musculoskeletal systems.
As the duration of an aerobic endurance event increases, so does the proportion of the total energy that must be met by aerobic metabolism. Therefore, high maximal aerobic capacity (___ ___) is necessary for success in aerobic endurance events.
Since the ability to sustain higher velocities during competition may have a greater impact on performance so HIIT may contribute to performance in highly trained endurance athletes via improvements in ____ _____ output, ventilatory threshold, hydrogen ion buffering, and utilization of fat as a fuel source.
The speed of movement or the percentage of VO2 Max at which a specific blood lactate concentration is observed or the point at which blood lactate concentration begins to increase above resting levels
Several studies have shown that an athlete's lactate threshold appears to be a better indicator of his or her _______ _________ performance than VO2 Max.
Maximal Lactate Steady State
the exercise intensity at which maximal lactate production is equal to maximal lactate clearance within the body; considered by many to be a better indicator of aerobic endurance performance than either VO2 Max or the lactate threshold
A measure of the energy cost of activity at a given exercise velocity; athletes with a high ________ _______ expend less energy during exercise to maintain a given exercise velocity; an improvement in this can enhance max aerobic power and lactate threshold
What are the five aerobic training program design variables?
1. Exercise ____
2. Training _________
3. Training _________
4. Exercise ________
5. Exercise ___________
Athletes who need to focus on improving exercise economy may want to do interval training with a focus on technique, as well as long ____ periods.
Athletes who need to increase ________ __________ might consider performing more high-intensity training.
The first step in designing an aerobic endurance program is exercise ____. This refers to the specific activity performed by the athlete: cycling, running, swimming for example
The more specific the training ____ is to the sport, the greater the improvement in performance.
The second step in designing an aerobic endurance program is training _________. This refers to the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week.
The _________ of training sessions will depend on the interaction of exercise intensity and duration, the training status of the athlete, and the specific sport season.
A number of studies have shown increased injury rates with training sessions more frequent than ____ times per week.
Research has shown that it is necessary to train more than ______ per week in order to increase VO2 Max.
________ from individual training sessions is essential if the athlete is to derive maximum benefits from the subsequent training session; Obtaining sufficient rest, becoming rehydrated, and restoring fuel sources are critical issues for the athlete during ________.
The third step in designing an aerobic endurance program is training _________, which if the effort expended during a training session; adaptations in the body are specific to the _________ of the training session.
An exercise intensity that is too low does not ________ the body's systems and induce the desired physiological adaptations, whereas an intensity that is too high results in fatigue and a premature end to the training session.
_____ ____ is the most frequently used method for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity due to the close relationship between it and oxygen consumption
Heart Rate Reserve
The difference between an athlete's maximal heart rate and his or her resting heart rate
______ ____ _________ = APMHR - resting heart rate
Second step of karvonen method
Age-predicted maximum heart rate
220 - age = what?
First step of the karvonen method
Target Heart Rate
_______ _____ ____ = (HRR x exercise intensity) + RHR
third step of karvonen method
ratings of perceived exertion
One way to to regulate training intensity is to use a ______ __ _________ _______ scale; this can be influenced by external environmental factors (listening to music, watching tv, etc.)
One _________ _________ is equal to 3.5 ml kg min of oxygen consumption and is considered the amount of oxygen by the body at rest; can be used to prescribe exercise intensity
The 4th step in designing an aerobic endurance program is exercise _________ which is the length of time of the training session; often influenced by the exercise intensity
The longer the exercise duration, the ______ the exercise intensity.
The 5th step of designing an aerobic endurance program is exercise __________ which involves increasing the frequency, intensity and duration
Frequency, intensity, or duration should not increase by more than __% each week.
When it is not feasible to increase frequency or duration, progression can occur with intensity manipulation which should be monitored to prevent ___________.
Long, slow distance
Traditionally, endurance coaches and athletes have used the term ____, ____ ________ training to refer to training at intensities equivalent to about 70% of VO2 Max (80% of max heart rate); training distance greater than race distance (30 to 120 minutes)
The training adaptations from long, slow distance training include enhancing the body's ability to clear ______ and causing the eventual shift of type IIx fibers to type __ fibers
This type of training employs an intensity at or slightly higher than race competition intensity; often called threshold training or aerobic-anaerobic interval training; 2 ways to conduct this type of training: steady and intermittent
This type of pace/tempo training is continuous training conducted at an intensity equal to the lactate threshold for durations of about 20-30 minutes; purpose is to stress the athlete at a specific intensity and improve energy production from both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
This type of pace/tempo training involves the same intensity as for a steady-threshold workout, but the training session consists of a series of shorter intervals with brief recovery periods between work intervals
The objectives of this type of aerobic endurance training is to:
1. develop a sense of race pace and enhance the body's ability to sustain exercise at that pace
2. improve running economy and increase lactate threshold
________ ________ involves exercise at intensities close to VO2 Max for intervals of 3-5 minutes; work:rest ratio should be 1:1; it increases VO2 Max and enhances anaerobic metabolism; should be used sparingly (very stressful on athlete), and only when training athletes with a firm aerobic endurance training base
High-Intensity Interval Training
This type of aerobic training involves using repeated high-intensity bouts interspersed with brief recovery periods; need to spend several minutes above 90% of VO2 Max for an optimal stimulus; may be effective for improving running economy and running speed
Both short (<__ seconds) and long (_ to _ minutes) HIIT intervals can be used to elicit different training responses.
This type of aerobic endurance training involves the combination of other methods of training; challenges all systems of the body and may help reduce the boredom and monotony associated with daily training; benefits included enhanced VO2 Max, increased lactate threshold, and improved running economy and fuel utilization
A sample of this type of aerobic endurance training would include easy running (70% VO2 Max) combined with either hill work or short, fast bursts of running (85-90% VO2 Max) for short time periods
The priority in ___ _______ is to develop a base of cardiorespiratory fitness; begin with long duration and low intensity; gradually increase intensity and, to a lesser extent, duration
The priority in the _________ should be focusing on increasing intensity, maintaining or reducing duration, and incorporating all types of training.
The __ _______ training program needs to be designed to include competition or race days in the schedule; low-intensity and short-duration training just before race days to keep athlete fully recovered and rested
During the __________, the main focus should be on recovering from the previous competitive season while maintaining sufficient fitness; low training duration and intensity
This is a mode of training that can be used to maintain general conditioning in athletes during periods of reduced training due to injury or recovery from a training cycle; may reduce the likelihood of overuse injuries
This occurs when the athlete reduces the training duration of intensity or stops training altogether due to a break in the training program, injury, or illness; the athlete experiences a loss of the physiological adaptations brought about by training
This is the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity combined with an increased emphasis on technique work and nutritional intervention; the objective of _________ the training regimen is to attain peak performance at the time of competition; help facilitate recovery and rehydration and promotes increases in muscle and liver glycogen stores
A typical tapering period may last between _ and __ days
The _______ taper is characterized by a gradual decrease in the overall daily training volume throughout the duration of the taper.
A ____ taper is typified by an abrupt and considerable (normally ≥50%) in training volume that is maintained throughout the duration of the taper without fluctuation
The __________ taper uses a combination of the linear and step tapering models; associated with a rapid 10 to 15% immediate reduction in training volume, with smaller, more gradual reductions in volume at each tier; training volume is systematically reduced while intensity and frequency are maintained
Some data suggests that benefits can be derived from performing __________ _______ during aerobic endurance training; benefits include improvement in short-term exercise performance, faster recovery from injuries, and prevention of overuse injuries and reduction of muscle imbalances
Acclimatization may occur between __ to __ days at moderate altitudes up to 2,300 m, but can take up to several months.
In order to see an ergogenic effect, athletes need a hypoxic dose ≥__ hours/day for a minimum of three weeks at moderate altitude.
The percentage of oxygen is the same at different altitudes. However, as altitude increases, the atmospheric pressure ________, causing a reduction in partial pressure (PO2), which acts as the driving force for gas exchange in the lungs which leads to physiological responses in the body
I, II, and III only
Which of the following adaptations occur as an outcome of an aerobic endurance training program?
I. increased oxygen delivery to working tissues
II. higher rate of aerobic energy production
III. greater utilization of fat as a fuel source
IV. increased disturbance of the acid-base balance
a. I and III only
b. II and IV only
c. I, II, and III only
d. II, III, and IV only
Which of the following types of training is conducted at an intensity equal to the lactate threshold?
c. high-intensity interval training
Which of the following is the method most commonly used to assign and regulate exercise intensity?
a. oxygen consumption
b. heart rate
c. ratings of perceived exertion
d. race pace
The loss of physiological adaptations upon the cessation of training is an example of
a. specificity of training
The longest aerobic endurance training sessions should be performed during which of the following sport seasons?
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