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WKU NURS 324 Respiratory alterations (exam 4)
Terms in this set (95)
What is targeted in a Upper Respiratory Infection?
nose, mouth, pharynx, and larnyx
the "common cold" and is transmitted through inhalation and contact
Cause of infectious rhinitis
rhinovirus (which is highly contagious) or combine with another bacterial infection
manifestations of infectious rhinitis
sneezing, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, dry cough (nonproductive), malaise, myalgia (muscle pain), low-grade fever, hoarseness, headache, and chills
inflammation of the sinus cavities
Causes of sinusitis
Viral (most common), bacterial, and fungi
Risk factors of sinusitis
environmental irritants, pollutants, immunocompromised conditions, conditions that increase mucus production, and nasal structure abnormalities
Manifestations of sinusitis
facial pain and pressure, nasal congestion, purulent nasal discharge, hyposmia (decrease in smell), halitosis (bad breath), mouth breathing, fever, sore throat, and malaise
a life threatening condition that is a rapidly progressive infection of the epiglottis
Causes of epiglottitis
haemophilus influenza type B (Hib), Group A beta-hemolhytic Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Staphylococcus aureus. It can also be caused by trauma to the throat
Manifestations of epiglottitis
fever, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, drooling with mouth ope, inspiratory stridor (high pitched wheezing sound when inhaling from obstruction in upper airway), respiratory distress, central cyanosis (around mouth and lips), anxiety, pallor, and assuming a seated position. The voice may also sound muffled.
inflammation of the larynx
Causes of laryngitis
infection, exudate, and overuse
Manifestations of laryngitis
hoarseness of voice or complete loss of voice
If laryngitis lasts longer than a week, what should the patient be evaluated for?
called "croup" and common in young children. It is characterized by a seal liked barking cough
Causes of Laryngotracheobronchitis
usually a virus and will start as an upper respiratory infection
What can laryngotracheobronchitis lead to?
The inflammation of the large bronchi or tracheobronchial tree (trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles). It will cause the airways to become irritated and narrow.
Manifestations of acute bronchitis
productive or nonproductive cough, dyspnea, wheezing (rom narrowing of airways), low-grade fever, pharyngitis, malaise, and chest discomfort
A viral infection that may affect the upper and lower respiratory tract and is highly adaptive to changes/strains
Which type of the influenza virus is the most severe and common in the US?
Risk factors of Influenza
children, elderly, patients with chronic diseases, immune compromised patients, pregnant women, and severely obese patients
Manifestations of influenza
fever, headache, dry cough, severe body aches, nasal congestion, sore throat, sweating, and malaise. Can also cause N/V and diarrhea
viral infection of the bronchioles which is usally RSV
What are the complications of brochiolitis?
atelectasis (alveoli collapse) and respiratory failure from low O2 or high CO2 levels
Manifestations of bronchiolitis
nasal drainage and congestion, coughing and wheezing, rapid and shallow respirations, chest retractions (pulling in of the skin around the rib or sternum), tachycardia, fever, dyspnea, and malaise
acute infection of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, injuries from aspiration or smoke inhalation, or pulmonary secretion stasis
Which bacteria is responsible for 75% of all pneumonia cases?
usually mild cases and can lead to a secondary bacterial pneumonia
caused by impaired gag reflexes, improper lower esophageal sphincter closure, and inappropriate tube feeding placements
a patchy pneumonia that affects several lobes and is the most frequent type
develops more than 48 hours after a hospital admission
manifestations of pneumonia
cough (productive/nonproductive), fatigue, pleuritic pain, crackles (when secretions are in airways and will "pop" with inhalation), pleural friction rub, tachypnea (>20 rpm), mental status changes, leukocytosis
caused by the bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis, is most frequently found in the lungs (but can spread), and is contracted by airborne droplets
Manifestations of TB
productive cough, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), night sweats, fever, chills, unexplained weight loss, anorexia, and other symptoms that are depended upon the other organ imvolvement
chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, but have intermittent periodic occurrences
Causes of asthma
acute airway inflammation, brochoconstriction, bronchospasms, bronchiole edema, and mucus production
Manifestations of asthma
wheezing, shortness of breath, dyspnea, chest tightness, cough, tachypnea, and anxiety
life threatening, prolonged asthma attack that doesn't respond to usual treatment
What are the complications of status asthmaticus
respiratory alkolosis, respiratory distress, and sometimes death
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
chronic disorders characterized by irreversible, progressive tissue degeneration and airway obstruction. The O2 begins to drive the breathing
Causes of COPD
smoking, pollution, chemical irritants, and genetic mutation
What are the two main conditions of COPD?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
inflammation of the bronchi that is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus and a chronic productive cough that lasts for at least 3 months of the year for 2 years straight
Causes of airway obstruction
broncial edema and thick mucus buildup that is unable to be cleared
Manifestations of Chronic Bronchitis
hypoventilation, hypoxemia, cyanosis, hypercapnia, polycythemia, clubbing of fingers, dyspnea during rest, wheezing, edema, weight gain, malaise, chest pain, and fever
What medical condition do we associate the term "blue bloaters" to?
Blue bloaters is named what it is because of
cyanosis and edema
destruction of the alveolar walls leads to large, permanently inflated alveoli
What problems lead to emphysema?
the loss of elastic recoil and hyperinflation of the alveoli which leads to air trapping
What is destroyed due to air trapping?
surfactant and elastic fibers
problems getting air out of the lungs which causes the lungs to become overloaded with air due to breathing in more than it can hold
What are the causes of emphysema?
genetic predispostition and smoking history
Manifestations of emphysema
diminished breath sounds, wheezing, chest tightness, barrel chest (change in shape of chest which it will widen out), pursed lip breathing, flushed skin, hypoxia, activity intolerance, and hyperventilation
What condition is the term "pink puffers" associate with?
What gives pink puffers its meaning?
pink appearance to skin, hyperventilation, and tachypnea
True/False: Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic condition.
a life-threatening condition resulting in severe lung damage and nutrition deficits
Which organs are impacted the most from cystic fibrosis?
the lungs and pancreas
What causes body secretions in people with cystic fibrosis to become thick and tenacious?
Which Punnett square result would indicate an offspring has cystic fibrosis?
2 lowercase letters (autosomal recessive)
Manifestations of cystic fibrosis
meconium ileus (1st bowel movement from baby- thick and sticky where it can't be passed), salty skin, steatorrhea, increased appetitie, chronic cough with sticky sputum (tenacious), and nutrition deficits
(oat-cell) cancer that is seen in heavy smokers, but occurs less frequently
Most common type of malignant lung cancer (85% of all lung cancer). Can be squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, and bronchioalveolar carcinoma
Manifestations of lung cancer
persistent cough or change in usual cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, frequent respiratory infections, chest pain, hoarseness, weight loss, anemia, fatigue, and specific symptoms depending on site of metastasis
accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural space which includes exudate, transudate, blood, and pus
Manifestations of pleual effusion
dyspnea, pleural pain, decreased or absent lung sounds, tracheal deviation (moves towards unaffected side)
What is pleural effusions associated with?
Air in pleural space collapses the lung partially or totally
Pneumothorax is also known as
a collapsed lung
Primary pneumothorax (spontaneous)
when blebs rupture and is commonly seen in tall and thin male smokers
Manifestations of pneumothorax
absent/diminished lung sounds, sudden sharp pain, tachypnea, assymetrical chest movement (depends on how much of lung is affected), and anxiety
caused by blunt trauma or penetrating trauma to chest cavity
life-threatening and can be a result of a spontaneous or traumatic where the lung walls close off and air is trapped around lungs
What happens to the unaffected lung in relation to tension pneumothorax?
it becomes smashed on the other side and will cause shifts of the mediastinum and chest deviations. Severity can lead to heart involvement
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
severe progressive respiratory distress often due to fluid accumulation in the alveoli and causes the alveolocapillary membrane to be injured.
Causes of ARDS
smoke inhalation (not cigarette smoke), overwhelming lung infection, sepsis in bloodstream, multiple traumas, and burn victims
Manifestations of ARDS
crackling in lungs, rapid shallow breathing, dyspnea, and coughing up frothy sputum
incomplete alveolar expansion or collapse of alveoli
Acute Respiratory Failure
life-threatening condition due to dangerously low O2 levels or dangerously high CO2 levels
Complications of Acute respiratory failure
cardiac and respiratory arrest
Manifestations of atelectasis
Diminshed breath sounds, tracheal shift towards AFFECTED lung, tachycardia, restlessness, assymmetrical chest expansion, and anxiety
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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