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Kin 405 Test 3
Terms in this set (84)
What are the major variables that can be manipulated in an exercise program?
• Frequency of Activity
• Duration of Activity
• Rate of Progression
recommendations of frequency of activity
• 3 days/week or more of vigorous (moderate - high intensity) activity
• 5 or more days/week of moderate intensity
• 3-5 days of a combo of first two options
dependent on intensity, and have to meet threshhold
minimum of training variable that is needed to make some process. Threshold appears to be 3 days per week. So if you're exercising less than 3 days per week, you won't see very much progress in programming, because the threshold has not been met.
what's the effect of frequency on improving vo2
2 days per week. this is dependent on the initial level of fitness. People who are less fit have the most to gain. Best resutls are 4 days per week. Sweet spot is 4-5 days per week
what is intensity based on
level of conditioning.
Light to moderate inensity used for deconditioned, but most adults can have moderate and/or high intesnity.
intensity is described as
rate of doing work or effort relative to some physio maximum.
how can intensity be measured
power, critical power (output that can be mained for one hour also known as functional threshold power.
absolue energy expenditure.
what are the acsm recs for measuring intesnity? which one is more generally used
based on hr, % of max hr
hrr - formula and
hr is more generally used
how does intensity change vo2
program and level of fitness will affect this, but as intensity increases then there will be a change in vo2
what's the recommended range of exercise
20-60 min/day which is intensity dependent
30-60 min/day is moderate
20-60 is vigorous
or for combo
20 minutes may be good enough for deconditioned
What type of exercise is recommended
regular purposeful exercise that involves major muscle groups and is continuous and rhythmic in nature
what are asm recs for aerbic programs
group A (walking/cycling) - minimal skill, activities can be easily maintained at a constant intensity
eventually transitions to
group b - running/spinning/elliptical. requires little skill, maintainable on higher intensities
group c - swimming/skiing - vigorous activities requireing skill to perform.
group d - rauet sports, basketball soccer - highly variable skills. great to get interaction and cut out reluctant to work out.
what's volume and how can it be measured
function of intensity, duration and frequency. how much total activity is being taken.
Formula = metx min per sesionx session per week.
or a met minute. 6 mets in 1 minute is 6 met minutes.
what are pattenrs
exercise that can be performed in one continus session/multiple sessions for over 10 minutes. <10 minutes may be helpful in deconditioned indivudals
what is progression
gradual progression duration, itensity, frquency until a desired goal is attained.
why is the rate of progression important
describe mets to guage intensity
>6 is vigorous
what are the two RPE scales? does it matter which you use
6-20 and 0-10. They are highly correlated. regardless what HR is tellign us, if they say it's too hard you have to stop.
What examples of general types of drugs used to treat obesity?
sibutarmine (meridia), orlistat, phenterime
what does sibutarmine (meridia) do
supresses appetite by acting on the cns (blocks reuptake of serotonin and increases satiety. blacks the neurons ability to reabsorb serotonin which blcoks/slows eating behavior.
meridia works on the hunger center
what does orlistat do
• Inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in the GI tract blocking fat digestion and absorption by approximately 30%
o Pancreatic lipase breaks down Triglycerides (and Fatty Acids), however, those triglycerides cannot be absorbed so they are eliminated in the stool; can decreae it by 30%
o Side Effect: Diarrhea, Gastric Effects, but not absorbing as muc hfat
what is phertermine
• Acts as a CNS stimulant. It is a centrally-acting stimulant acting to halt the hunger signal
• Suppresses hunger
what types of surgery are used to treat obesity? How effective are they?
lap band - staples the stomach and inserts a band making the stomach smaller and holds less food so they feel less full. it's an outpatient procedure
gastric bypass surgery - resections the samll intestine taking the small intestine off the lower portion of the stomach, and resections up to the esophagus
gastric bubble - catheter down the esophagus that has a balloon filled with saline that displaces anything present. it is removed after 6 months. is ore effective thane exercise and diet.
• Banding and Gastroplasty:
o 1st year: people lost 20% of body weight
o After 10 years: kept the weight off, but there is still a creep, but the band is such a drastic change so it keeps the weight off
• Gastric Bypass Surgery
o 1st year: 40% weight loss
o After 10 years: 30% lower than how they were before
With regard to setting up training programs, what is meant by the term "threshold"?
Threshold - minimum amount of overload necessary to produce an adaptation or even some kind of response
Important Point! - To maximize the effectiveness of a program all variables [Main variables: frequency, intensity, duration] must at least reach threshold levels
• Ex. Individual exercising once a week at 80% HRmax for 30 mins
o Recommendation/Threshold is met for intensity and duration, but not for frequency
o Therefore, they won't see much improvement if they are in a program that is lacking and not meeting all the thresholds
What are the general guidelines for designing any type of training program?
compatible with individual goals
realistic short term/longerm goals
safely achieve goals
what are the general guidelines of a training program
complete + simple ( all necessary elements to accomplish goals - frequency duration and intensity)
program should be repeatedly regularly iwth consistency in particpation
program should be progressive
have appropriate variation (doesn't change every time, but intensity should vary
should have adequate recovery
what are the general components of a training program
aerobic based and resistance based
What is the physiological importance of a warm-up and cool-down?
increase body temp to prevent injury, increased elasticity, gradual redistribution of cardiac output to working muscle
what does the cardiac redistribution do
prevention of arrhythmias,
induce changes in cv
redistributes blood flow
what's the function of a cool down
purpose: bring HR down gradually,
PRIMARY REASON: minimize venous pooling (preventing post-exercise hypotension)
SECONDARY REASON: secondary reason for cool down(30-40 vo2)
Gradual return of Cardiac Output and Blood Pressure towards base levels
what types of warm ups are there? how should it start
active - performing some type of movement involved
passive - doing something to the athlete
general - stretching
specific - similar to target activity
start with gradual non specific to specific
how intensely should you warm up
breaking into a sweat and can control breathing rate; do not want to have too intense of a warm-up where you cannot complete your target activity
What are the general recommendations for the duration and intensity of warm-up and cool-down?
Warm-Up: Minimum of 5-10 mins; longer if time permits at a light to moderate intensity
Cool Down: Duration: ~5-10 minutes or until HR and other physiological indicators stabilize
What are the specific ACSM recommendations for "aerobic" training programs (FITT-VPP)?
frequency ( 3 days or more of vigorous activity moderate activity, more than 5 days of moderate activity to achieve lactate threshold)
intensity (condition dependent 55-65% of vo2)
time (20-60 per day of vigorous, 30-60 of moderate intensity)
Type (regular, purposeful exercise that uses larger muscle groups to stimulate improvements of vo2, continuous rhythmic activity, result sin larger energy expenditure)
Volume ( 500-1000 Met min)
Pattern (exercise may be performed in one continuous or in multiple sessions greater than 10 minutes)
Progression ( gradual progression in duration, intensity, or frequency)
name the group activities
group A - minimal skills necessary like walking
group B - vigorous intensity endurance activities, running or spinning
group C - requiring skill to perform and technique - swimming
group d - skill and intensity are needed - basketball, soccer
what is retrogression
preiod of decreased level of fitness. looks like a squiggly line.
did workout 2 days prior and then they're struggling. could happen for a session or two, or 1-2 weeks.
what does rate of progression consider
age, health status, and training level.
Describe the ways in which intensity can be measured (e.g. % HRmax, %VO2 Max, pace, etc.)
power - watts- absolute, % maximum wattage, watts/kg
absolute power - watts inputting out
absolute EE per min (kcal/min)
% age predicted HRmax
what is the linear effect of frequency
how often should a low, moderate and high fitness person exercise
greater frequency produces greater effect on improvement of vo2
people who are at a low fitness level will improve with 2x a week, moderate fitness level wlill increase 3-4, high level - 4 days per week
what intensity increases effects of fitness
moderate intensity programs but takes longer and decreases risk of injury.
average of training should be moderate should be 50-70% of vo2 max
What is a MET-minute?
o 1 MET = Resting Energy Expenditure
o 1 MET in 1 Min = 1 MET•Min
what's the diminishing point of returns
o As you get more and more fit, you reach the point of diminishing returns (bumping past physiological limit)' those last few improvements of VO2 or other components of fitness is difficult
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using RPE as a measure of exercise intensity?
: If you do not explain it → as they go through progressive exercise and do not understand, may say 15 in the beginning and later say 10
o If you do not provide anchor points, people will do progressive exercise and not understand the scale
RPE represents an overall sensation of effort, not localized pain
anchor points - you have to compare each of the points
What is the oxygen uptake reserve (VO2R)?
Oxygen Uptake Reserve = (VO2 Max - VO2 Rest); VO2 Rest = 3.5 ml/min/kg for everyone
Note: The higher your VO2 Reserve, the more intense the exercise you are capable of doing
what is the initial conditioning phase? what happens afte rthat
weeks 1 duration can be lower than 20 min, frequency is 3 x a week
week 2 - increase minutes by 5%. goal is to work continuously if they an handle it, part of the training will be going to a lower level of interval training to accomplish whole duration
in the next few weeks you can increase intensity and extend duration
What is the purpose of interval training? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
structured intermittent and repetitive use of work and rest
Advantages: allows someone to train at a higher intensity than they're used to. and they can produce more work than working continuously at the same output. allows metabolic and support systems to be trained, can design programs that emphasize energy systems, and used with all fitness levels
disadvantages: increase incidence of overtraining, overuse injuries and reduce program compliance if too frequent. 4 day program
What are the variables that can be manipulated in an I.T. program
work: Distance, duration, intensity, reps
recovery: distance duration and intensity
Describe how manipulating the variables of an IT program can make it either more "aerobic" or "anaerobic."
longer the work duration, more aerobic.
shorter the recovery interval,
the more aerobic, more active the recovery the more aerobic
more active the more aerobic the program
greater total number of itnervals the more aerobic
The higher the work interval intensity, the greater the aerobic and anaerobic components will be. 80-100 of vo2.
as the ratio becomes less, the intensity goes
• 1:1 > or greater (2:1, 3:1, etc.) Aerobic Metabolism
o The intensity needs to be lower in order to hold the intensity
• 1:2 - 1:3 Glycolytic
o Training the production and removal of lactate
• 1:4 or less (i.e. 1:5, 1:6, etc.) ATP/Creatine Phosphate
What is "Fartlek" training? How does it differ from either continuous or interval training?
You are moving along, then speed up, then slow down (higher then lower), but you still keep moving
• Continuous Training - no fluctuations; working at a more or less constant intensity
• Interval Training - activity that is intermittent; working then recovering → referred to as Work:Recovery
What are some examples of "Fartlek-type" training?
Spin Class → randomly going faster or slower, going up hills, but still move the entire time; Another example is aerobic dance classes
signs and symptoms of overtrainign
• General Fatigue
• Lack of Motivation
• Increased incidence of:
o URTI (Upper Respiratory Tract Infections, Swelling Lymph Nodes, Colds, Infections)
• Loss of Appetite
• Weight Loss
• Loss of Sleep (Quality of sleep is affected as a result of overtraining)
• Elevated resting HRs and Postural Hypotension
What steps can be taken to reduce the possibility of overtraining?
• If they are exhibiting these signs/symptoms of overtraining → they need to get back off and reduce intensity or duration of the program and let them have time to recovery (within 1-2 weeks, they are fine)
What is meant by detraining
: Most metabolic, CVP, and strength benefits are lost within relatively short period of time after training is stopped; if they stay sedentary → they go back to where they started
what are examples of physiological changes that may result from detraining?
in two weeks theres a 25% drop in performance. consistency in teh program. don't see much of a decline
VO2 max dropped, cardiac output stroke and heart rate drops in 12
What are the benefits of participating in a resistance program
maintenance/improvement of body comp, bone density, glucose levels, integrity of tendons/ligaments, pscyh benefits
When strength testing, what factors must be considered? (e.g. contraction type, movement velocity, etc.)
contraction types, joint angles, speed movement, equipment used, motivation, control of environment
What medical and health issues must be addressed prior to any type of musculoskeletal testing?
pre-existing conditions, warm up, large muscles, watch for proper breathing/movement, give adequate rest, spotters
distinguish between neural vs. hypertrophic factors that can potentially alter the expression of strength.
Improved motor recruitment - more nerves and fibers that innervate it
improved frequency of motor firing - causes muscle fibers associated with motor nerve to produce more force
decrease neuromuscular inhibition - initially nervous system puts a limit on how much force they can produce
hypertrophy - increase fast twitch and slow twitch, but mostly fast twitch
What are the differences in strength levels between men and women?
• Upper Body: 50-60% Strength of Males
• Lower Body: 70-80% Strength of Males
How is strength affected by age
hits peak at 25-30 then drops off. 1% decline after 40
What is sarcopenia? what is it due to
age-related loss of muscle mass, strength and function
• ~30% decline in muscle mass from about age 30 to age 70
due to atrophy of fibers, and increased % of type 1 fibers
What physiological changes take place in muscle during the process of sarcopenia?
decreased type 1 and 2 fibers affecting fast twitch more. atrophy and loss causing increased type fibers.
how does sarcopenia affect bmr and old people
3% per decade.
o ~1/3 of people > 65 year olds fall each year; by 80 years and older, ½ fall
What are some of the potential causes of sarcopenia
intramuscular fat accumulation. losing muscle mass/strength. decrease in PA
What are the variables that can be manipulated in resistance programs
sets, reps, intensity, resistance, exercises, contraction, speed movement., number of exercises, order of exercises, training, recovery time between sets, time of work
What are the general rules for a lifting program?
large then small muscles
agonist and antagonist
how do you emphasize strength, power and endurance
• Muscular Strength: 3-6 reps per set
• Muscular Power: 6-12 reps per set
• Muscular Endurance: 12-20 reps/se
What are the general recommendations for progression in a resistance-based program?
• Progression: [2-10%] increase in load depending upon the size of the muscle group
o Smaller muscle group: increase in smaller increments; large muscle group → large increments
What are the specific ACSM recommendations for resistance training programs?
• Mode: Minimum of 8-10 exercises that utilize major muscle groups
• Frequency: 2-3 times per week
• Intensity: 60-100% 1RM• Duration: No set duration of program
• Progression: [2-10%] increase
What is the difference between traditional circuit training and super circuit training
traditional circuit lacks the aerobic activity in between exercises
• Putting aerobic activities in between causes a decrease in the weight you can handle, but it gives some aerobic activity
What are the recommendations to minimize adverse effects on the CV system during resistance exercise?
breathe (no valsalva)
limit use of iso contraction (affects blood pressure)
avoid slow, sustained contractions, increase intervals between sets, avoid set to failure
What factors affect an individual's flexibility
joint structure, connective tissue, neuomuscular effects, affected by age, and influenced by motivation
what are the adverse effects of flexibility
can make a person more susceptible to injury, • Flexibility can be developed without sacrificing strength development and may be developed with full-range resistance training
How is flexibility affected as a result of aging
o Flexibility generally until adolescence (kids are flexible until adolescence) → flexibility decreases in both boys and girls
o Girls are generally more flexible than boys (Trunk Flexion - Sit and Reach)
Could be due to: Anatomical Difference, Activity Differences or Types
o In adults, there is less difference between sexes
As you get older, there tends to be less difference between men and women; 70 year old males vs. females (not much difference in ROM compared to 20 year olds)
What are the ACSM recommendations for flexibility training
• Mode: Major muscle and/or tendon groups
• Frequency: Minimum 2-3x per week; 2 is the threshold
• Intensity: to a position of mild discomfort
• Duration: 10-30 seconds of static stretching
• Repetitions: 3 to 4 for each stretch
What are the acute effects of stretching prior to activity?
reduce force/power, running economy decreases, does not reduce rate of injury.
What are the long-term effects of a stretching program on performance-based measures and incidence of injury?
• Increase isometric force production
• Increase jump height and speed (running speed)
• No effect on running economy; doesn't affect running mechanics
• Weak evidence of injury reduction (little evidence)
o Not a lot of studies conducted and hard to control
o Increase ROM → may reduce injury rates, but evidence is not that strong
multidimensional concept referring to the ability of person not to fall
the inherent ability of an individual to remain in or return to a specific state of balance without falling
What is postural control? What is meant by reactive postural control and how can it be evaluated?
the act of maintaining, achieving, or restoring a state of balance during any posture or movement
What are some general guidelines for improving balance?
• ACSM has no specific recommendations for developing balance, some general principles can be used.
• Select a movement that is safe but also somewhat challenging.
• Progress towards activity specific exercises
• Sets and repetitions 2-3 sets, 15 to 30 repetitions or 10 of the exercise for 15 to 30 seconds later on in the program
difference between semi dynamic and dynamic balance
• Semi-dynamic - COG is maintained over a fixed base of support while on a moving surface
• Dynamic - maintenance of COG within limits of stability over a moving base of support while on a stable surface
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