74 terms

Mr. Scheffler's Latin America Test

Latin America
All the nations in the Western Hemisphere south of the United States.
The largest river in South America and the world
Amazon River
The largest mountain range in South America
The prominent languages (2) spoken in Latin America
Spanish and Portuguese
The largest country in South America
The first Americans were
Maize was first grown in Meso-America around what year?
5000 BC
Where is Meso-America?
Present day Mexico and Central America
Region where the Olmecs, The Mayas, and the Aztecs all flourished
Describe what we used to believe about ancient Americans and what we believe now.
Possible essay question. Be able to answer this with a decent amount of depth.
First of the great cultures of Latin America that we know about, first appeared around 1500 BC
The Olmec
The chief deity of the the ancient Olmec?
The Jaguar god
The farming technique used by the Olmec
slash and burn farming
Advanced Meso-American civilization. Heyday was between 900 BC and 900 AD
The Maya
a Mayan ball game that had religious significance
Describe the Mayan culture. In what ways were they very advanced?
Possible essay question. Be able to answer this with a decent amount of depth.
Chichen Itza
An ancient Mayan city located on the Yucatan Peninsula. Became the principle Mayan city during the late-classical period`
the largest ancient Mayan city in the northern part of Guatemala during Mayan Classical period
large city built on a plateau in modern day Mexico, laid out on grid system, 200,000 inhabitants, pyramids, apartment compounds,workshops, and markets
The Toltec
Defeated the Teotihuacano and created their own civilization in Modern-day Mexico around 750 AD
"Feathered Serpent" god of the Aztec, first appeared with the Toltec
Principle city of the Toltec
The Inca
They forged the greatest ancient empire on the South American continent. Their empire stretched from Colombia to central Chile.
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
In 1438, this ambitious leader took the throne. Under his leadership, the Inca conquered all of Peru and then moved into neighboring lands.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Francisco Pizzaro begins conquest of Incas
Machu Pichu
a city built by the Inca people on a mountaintop in the Andes Mountains in present-day Peru--- Means "great peak"
The Mexica tribe
The first Aztec tribe.
Lake Texcoco
Lake located in the valley of Mexico; location of Tenochtitlan.
Aztec capital city
Conquest of Mexico Spanish Conquistadors.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Christopher Columbus first lands in the Americas.
Describe Christopher Columbus' contribution to world history
Possible essay question. Study your notes!
How many total voyages did Columbus have to the New World?
What was Columbus searching for when he landed in the Americas?
A water route to Asia
Vasco Da Gama
(Portugal) First European to sail from Europe to East Asia. (sailed around Africa to India)
He was the leader/captain of the first people to circumnavigate the world, led Spanish expedition to Philippines
German map maker who named the Americas.
Amerigo Vespucci
A mapmaker and explorer who said that America was a new continent, so America was named after him.
Montezuma II
the last Aztec emperor in Mexico who was overthrown and killed by Hernando Cortes.
Last Incan Empire before Spanish conquest. Pizarro used him to control the Incas, but was eventually executed.
What were the goals of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires?
Possible Essay Question. Study your notes!
In colonial Latin America, Spanish and Portuguese born inhabitants. Held most of the political power.
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World.
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
Spanish American Social Order
Possible essay question. Know this! Study your notes!
Circumstances that led to the independence movements in Latin America.
Possible essay question. Know this! Study your notes!
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
The first Latin American country to gain its independence as result of a slave revolt.
Francois Louverture
Led Haitian independence movement and slave revolt
Napoleon Bonaparte
French Emperor and European conqueror that played a big role in Latin American independence.
Haitian independence
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions
The Cry of Delores
When Hidalgo rang the church call and issued his call for Mexican revolution.
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814.
Agustin de Iturbide
Mexican (creole) army officer who joined forces w/ the Indians and Mestizos won mexican's independence then claimed himself emperor
Simon Bolivar
(1783-1830) Leader for independence who defeated Spanish forces in South America, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru. (the southern part of South America)
King Joao
-exiled Portuguese king, forced to return to Portugal to save his throne. leaves his son Dom Pedro in charge of Brazil.
Dom Pedro
King Joao's son who claims independence for Brazil after being asked to rule from a petition of the people. won independence in a bloodless revolution
What were the challenges faced by Latin America after independence?
Possible essay question! Know this! Study your notes!
The United States
Mighty North American nation that has often dominated Latin American politics.
The Monroe Doctrine
An order by President Monroe in 1823 warning European countries against further colonization in North or South America.
The Alamo
Old Spanish mission that is best remembered for the battle fought their for Texas' independence.
Mexican American War
1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
President Juarez
Ruler of Mexico before Díaz. He brought liberal reforms : separation of church and state, land distributions to poor, and educational system in Mexico.
Emperor Maximillian
- (1832-1867) Was an Australian sent by the French to Mexico to be the emperor while the United States was preoccupied with the Civil War. French withdrew their support and he was overthrown.
Pancho Villa
1916, Led a raid across the US/Mexican border, murdering people in NM and TX. Wilson sent army to go after Villa. US was probably on verge of war with Mexico, but WWI tore US away.
Venustiano Carranza
A Mexican revolutionary leader supported by Wilson who fought against Huerta. Succeeded Huerta after the revolution.
The Spanish American War
Consisted of the conflict between Spain and the United States over control of Cuba and the Philippines
The Panama Canal
Built after President Roosevelt used American power to create an independent Panama.
The Roosevelt Corollary
It was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine that said the US will interfere in Latin America to solve problems and economic issues.