World History: Midterm
Terms in this set (73)
religion, arts & literature, traditions & customs, social organization, language, economy, government
What are the seven elements of culture?
helps people answer the basic questions about the meaning and purpose of life
products of the human imagination made to please and entertain us
arts & literature
unwritten rules of behavior
traditions & customs
meant to help the the people of a culture work together to meet their basic needs
allows us to communicate our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge
how people use limited resources to satisfy their wants and needs
formed to provide for peoples common needs such as keeping order in society and protecting them against threat
movement, region, location, interaction, place
What are the five themes of geography?
movement of people, goods, and ideas, they often move together
an area with its own unifying characteristics
refers to a place or point on Earth
how we interact with our surroundings
describes what a location looks like
hinduism, buddhism, judaism, christianity, and islam
what are the five major world religions?
associated with everything, unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force, most important hindu belief
suffering exists, cause of suffering,
end of suffering, path that frees us from suffering
four noble truths
doing the right thing; it's a moral law. People who are center their lives around Dharma strives to do the right thing at all times.
the path that leads us from suffering: right understanding, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
Eight Fold Path
profession of faith only Allah, five daily prayers, paying zakat, fasting during holy month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once
5 Pillars of Islam
marked the transition from an agricultural to urban society, "rebirth"
Intellectual movement, studied classical culture and used these studies to increase understanding of their own times. People were more concerned about themselves and the people around them more now than ever before.
Subjects like grammar, poetry, and history taught in school located in ancient Greece and Rome.
The geography, wealth, merchants/traders of Italy aided in the growth of the Renaissance. "the center of the renaissance."
Architecture meant to blend beauty with utility and improvement of society as described by Leon Alberti
an invention that led to the mass printing of books in Europe. This allowed for an increase in literacy, and for Europeans to be exposed to new ideas and new places
A book in which Sir Thomas Moore describes an ideal society in which mean and women live in peace and harmony
Government run by church leaders. Citizens faced fines and hard punishments for swearing, fighting, dancing, or laughing in church.
Early Renaissance humanist/ poet, created a library with Greek and Roman manuscripts in religious places. Revived the works of people like Cicero, Homer, and Virgil who had "disappeared."
A painter, inventor, engineer, and botanist. He contributed to the Renaissance because his paintings were about nature, which also spread during this movement.
His artistic works represent lifelong spiritual and artistic struggles, some of his famous works include the David, the Pieta, and the Sistine Chapel ceiling. He was a successful sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet.
Printed the first complete edition of the Bible using a printing press with movable type
Wrote about an ideal political system in his book, Utopia. After when he was asked to acknowledge King Henry VII as the head of the Church and England and refused. Soon after he had an untimely death and has been considered a saint.
He created a new style of play writing because he mixed both tragedy and comedy into one. He used the term humanism in his plays to help define the Renaissance Movement.
Affected the direction of the Reformation, trained as a priest and lawyer. Published a book with his religious beliefs and examples how to run a Protestant Church. Many ideas were shared with Luther.
The English monarch that founded the Church of England, Anglicanism, so that he could annul his marriage with Catherine in order to have a son.
A Frenchman at the head of the Scientific Revolution. He emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding. "I Think, Therefore I am"
The English mathematician and physicist responsible for the fundamental laws of motion, theory of gravity, and calculus. he "linked the sciences together"
island chain in Indonesia that was the chief source of spices, "Spice Islands"
Set by Pope Alexander VI, dividing the non-European world into two zones. On the west was Spanish trading and exploration rights which is the same as Portugal on the east. Line is unclear due to geography being imprecise
Line of Demarcation
To travel completely around the world. The survivors of Magellan's voyage (Not magellan himself) who made it to Spain were the first to do this.
someone sent to do religious work in a territory or foreign country. Europeans of the time sent missionaries to foreign countries in order to make the people easier to conquer/enslave
a trading company established by the Netherlands in 1602 to protect and expand trade in India. This company had full sovereign power, and was able to build armies, negotiate peace agreements, and govern oversea territories
Dutch East India Company
the main sponsor of Portuguese exploration, saw the promise in Africa, but ultimately wanted to sail to Asia. Gathered a group of scientists and cartographers in Sagres in order to achieve his goals
Led four ships around the Cape of Good Hope and had plans to go farther to India spice port. In india he got many spices he sold for great profit, made new fleet for greater profits his voyages confirmed Portugal's status as a world power.
Vasco Da Gama
Wanted to reach East Indies by sailing west across the Atlantic, didn't know size of earth which caused problems during travels. Thought he got to East Asia but it was a route to two unknown continents
Wanted to find a way to reach the Pacific. When his fleet reached South America they explored every bay until they found one known as the Magellan strait which lead to the Pacific.
The king of Asante, unified his kingdom by telling everyone he was chosen by God, defeated the neighboring Denkyera kingdom
Dutch farmers who settled around Cape Town. They thought they were chosen by God and that they were better than the Africans
Muslim empire that ruled most of Northern India. The empire at the center of the spice trade. The empire was eventually plagued by civil war and the increase in influence of European powers in India
Indian soldiers who served in an army set up by French or British trading companies.
people originally from Manchuria (north China) who conquered the Ming Dynasty and ruled as the Qing Dynasty
China's last dynasty that was established by the Manchus. China's influence and economy expanded during this dynasty; used the Confucian system of government
a ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he governs. Ex: Phillip II, Louis XIV, Peter the Great, etc.
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God. Rulers such as Phillip II, Louis XIV, the Tudors, and James I believed this
a fleet of ships; the Spanish Navy under Phillip II that fought the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto and the British in the English Chanel
Law issued by Henry IV giving more religious freedom to French Protestants. Henry IV issued this law after converting to Catholicism; he still wanted to protect the Huguenots.
Edict of Nantes
series of acts passed by the English Parliament that limited the rights of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of parliament. Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly
English Bill of Rights
government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power. Parliament established this in England, where monarchs had to obey the law and govern in partnership with parliament
ended 30 years' war, France gained territory, Hapsburg lost influence over German Princes, Netherlands and Switzerland recognized, Germany fragmented
Peace of Westphalia
a Central European Empire that included the lands of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands. Charles V was the king of both this empire and the Spanish Empire simultaneously
Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, simultaneously ruled Hapsburg and Spanish Empires, devout Catholic, eventually gave up his titles and entered a monastery, gave lands in central Europe to his brother Ferdinand, gave Spanish Empire to his son, Phillip II
he was very successful in making Spain the foremost power in Europe by expanding Spanish influence and strengthening the Catholic Church. he viewed himself as the defender of the catholic faith
inherited the throne as a protestant but to gain control of France he converted to Catholicism. he repaired France by reaching into every area of French life, improving roads, building bridges and reviving agriculture. he wrote the Edict of Nantes which protected protestants
chief minister appointed by Louis XIII, strengthened central government by reducing the power of Huguenots and nobles, defeated private/Huguenot armies, destroyed their forts, handpicked his successor
Chief minister under Louis XIV, worked tirelessly to extend royal power, similar to his predecessor; died when Louis XIV was 23, which granted Louis XIV complete control over France
French finance minister under Louis XIV; imposed mercantilist policies to boost the economy; expanded French industry, regulated trade with colonies, still did not produce enough income to make up for frivolous spending of Louis XIV
had the same issues with parliament as james I. he signed the petition saying he would include them, but he completely ignored it leading to a war between Cavaliers (Charles) and the Roundheads (Parliament) parliament wins and executes Charles I
Leader of the Roundhead army, selected officers for skill, defeated the Cavaliers, Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth and practically ruled as a dictator, closed all theaters in England,
daughter of Charles VI, empress of the Hapsburg Empire, strengthened empire by reforming the bureaucracy and tax collection, taxed the nobles and upper class in order to relieve the peasants
Hohenzollern ruler of Prussia that formed one of the best trained armies in Europe, trained his son, Frederick II, in the art of war
Fredrick William I
Focused mainly on domestic affairs and westernization. made the first Navy, newspaper, hospitals, and museums. defeated sweden to gain the baltic sea/ warm water ports. his only blemish is serfdom.
Peter the Great
focused mainly on foreign affairs, she expanded Russia in all directions, gained warm water port on the Black Sea from the Ottoman Empire. She also focused on education, granted lawyers exemption from taxes, loved the arts
Catherine the Great