78 terms

Cells/Mitosis&Meiosis/Genetics/Classification/Evoluion

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The 3 phases of INTERPHASE in order
Gap 1, Synthesis, and Gap 2
Function of S phase of INTERPHASE
Replication of DNA and centromeres
The phases of MITOSIS in order
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
The phases of MEIOSIS in order
Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2.
Interphase
The phase before MITOSIS and MEIOSIS where the cell are doing their normal function
increases
Sexual reproduction ___________ of genetic variation
decreases
Asexual reproduction ___________ of genetic variation
asexual
Mitosis is classified as ___________ reproduction
sexual
Meiosis is classified as ___________ reproduction
genetically identical
Mitosis produces cells that are _____________ to the parent cell.
genetically varied
Meiosis produces cells that are _____________ to the parent cell.
Sex cells are also known as...
Gamete
2 diploid cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell
Mitosis results in how many cells?
4 haploid sex cells that differ genetically from the parent cell.
Meiosis results in how many cells?
Prophase of Mitosis
The phase where the nuclear envelope disappears, DNA condenses into chromosome form, and the
centromeres begin to move to opposite sides of the cell and extend spindle fibers
Metaphase of Mitosis
The phase where the spindle fibers start to align the chromosomes in the middle of the cell
Anaphase of Mitosis
The phase where the spindle fibers start to pull apart the sister chromatids and move them to the opposite sides of the cell
Telophase of Mitosis
The phase where the chromatids now arrive at their opposite ends of the cell, new nuclear envelope starts to form around the two daughter chromatids, and the chromosomes start to disperse and become less visible.
What occurs during Prophase 1 of Meiosis
The phase where the Nuclear envelope disappears, Chromosomes condense, Crossing over occurs and Homologous chromosomes pair up together
Image of Prophase
Image of Metaphase
Image of Anaphase
Image of Cytokenesis
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
The correct order of the Taxonomic Hierarchy
Kingdom Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
These Kingdoms ONLY includes prokaryotes
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Archeabacteria
Cell Type: prokaryote
Cell wall structure: cell wall WITHOUT peptidoglycan
Number of Cells: unicellular
Mode of Nutrition: heterotroph and autotroph
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Eubacteria
Cell Type: prokaryote
Cell wall structure: cell wall WITH peptidoglycan
Number of Cells: unicellular
Mode of Nutrition: heterotroph and autotroph
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Plantae
Mode of Nutrition: autotroph
Cell Type: eukaryote
Cell wall structure: cell wall with cellulose or chloroplast
Number of Cells: multicellular
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Fungi
Mode of Nutrition: heterotrophic
Cell Type:eukaryote
Cell wall structure: cell wall with CHITIN
Number of Cells: most multicellular and some unicellular
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Protista
Mode of Nutrition: autotroph and heterotroph
Cell Type: eukaryote
Cell wall structure: cell wall with cellulose
Number of Cells: most unicellular, some multicellular
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Animalia
Mode of Nutrition: heterotroph
Cell Type: eukaryote
Cell wall structure: no cell wall
Number of Cells: multicellular
Definition of a Heterotroph
An organism who does not make its own food
An organism that is an autotroph or heterotroph and has a cell wall without peptidoglycan is from this kingdom
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Archaebacteria
An organism that is an autotroph or heterotroph and a cell wall with peptidoglycan is from this kingdom
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Eubacteria
An organism that is multicellular, Heterotrophic, and has a cell wall with chitin is from this kingdom
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Fungi
An organism that is eukaryotic, autotrophic and is only multicelluar is from this kingdom
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Plantae
Definition of Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
Protista and Plantae
These are the only Kingdoms that have photosynthetic organisms
The only kingdom that does not contain a cell wall
Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Animalia
Definition of a Eukaryote
An organism that has membrane bound organelles and a nucleus
Definition of a Prokaryote
An organism that DOES NOT have membrane bound organelles and NO nucleus
The components of the Miller-Urey Experiment
1. Water to represent the ocean
2. Gases to represent the primitive atmosphere
3. Electrical spark to represent lightning
The Result of the Miller-Urey Experiment
This experiment found that it is possible for the synthesis of organic materials under the conditions of the experiment.
The reason why the MIller-Urey Experiment so widely accepted today
The experiment was able to synthesize organic molecules successfully in the laboratory
Cyanobacteria
This organism is recognized for oxygenating the earth because of the evolution of the use of photosynthesis
The endosymbiotic theory
The theory that tne prokaryotic bacteria engulfed another. They both provide benefits to each other and are better off together than separate
Prokaryotic bacteria start to evolve into Eukaryotic cells thanks to the Endosymbiotic theory
How do scientist believe prokaryotes evolve to eukaryotes?
the theory of evolution
change in the gene pool over time and that we all come from a common ancestor
Homologous Structures
structures that have similar structure and form but are different in function
Analogous Structures
structures that have similar function but are different in structure and form; DOES NOT SUPPORT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
Vestigial Structures
remnants of structures that may have had important functions in ancestral species but have no clear function in some of the modern descendants
Comparative embryology
comparing and contrasting embryos of different species to show how all animals are related
Genetic Drift
the idea that in each generation, some individuals may, just by chance, leave behind a few more descendents (and genes, of course!) than other individuals.
Mutation
natural processes that produce genetic diversity
Gene Flow
The movement and exchange of genes or alleles from one population of species to another
Natural Selection
an organisms with favorable genetic variation will tend to survive and breed successfully.
The link between jaw size and hominid evolution
Over time jaws of hominids evolved to be smaller and less protruding
cell (plasma) membrane function
a thin, flexible barrier around a cell, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cytoplasm
the entire contents of the cell
Ribosome Function
Synthesizes proteins through instructions given by DNA
Nucleus Function
this organelle structure contains DNA
rough endoplasmic recticulum
the organelle structure that synthesis of proteins, has ribosomes attached to it
smooth endoplasmic recticulum
what is the organelle structure that does not contain ribosomes on its surface and synthesizes membrane lipds
golgi apparatus
the organelle that modifies, packages, and transports proteins out of the cell.
organelle used to produces energy
mitochondria
Chloroplast Function
this organelle found only in plant cells where photosynthesis occurs
plant cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
central vacuole function
large central vacuole
What structure is the arrow pointing to? HINT : it is only found in plants
cell wall function
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
structures only found in plant cells
cell wall, chloroplast, central vacuole
no membrane
Prokaryotic Cells contain __________ bound organelles
membrane
Eukaryotic Cells contain __________ bound organelles
cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA
Organelles found in ALL types of cells
Examples of non-mendalian traits include...
codominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles
3 or more alleles contributing to one trait
multiple alleles
Polygenic Inheritance
Height is controlled by multiple genes. Height is an example of what inheritance pattern
codominance
A chicken is spotted black and white. This is best described as what type of inheritance?
incomplete dominance
If a flower is pink, and the parents were red and white, what inheritance is this?