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Chapter 5 Ancient Greece

Chapter 5 Ancient Greece
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Mycenaeans
People who settled on the Greece mainland around 2000 B.C. Their name came from their leading city, Mycenae (my-SEE-nee).
Trojan War
During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought this ten-year war against Troy, an independent trading city located in Anatolia.
Ionian Sea
body of water to the west of Greece.
Aegean Sea
body of water to the east of Greece.
Mediterranean Sea
body of water south of Greece.
Homer
Greek storyteller who was blind composed his epics, narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds and around 750 B.C.
Myth
Traditional stories about Greek gods.
Polis
fundamental political unit in ancient Greece that was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside.
Acropolis
Fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city government.
Monarchy
Form of government where a single person, a king, ruled.
Aristocracy
A government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families.
Oligarchy
A government ruled by a group of a few powerful people that is based on wealth. This ruling group controls the military. Practiced in Sparta around 500 B.C.
Tyrants
Powerful individuals, usually nobles or wealthy citizens, who sometimes seized control of the government by appealing to common people for support.They were not considered harsh, but rather looked upon as leaders working for the interests of ordinary people.
Democracy
Form of government rule by people.
Draco
In 621 B.C., this Greek leader developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. Criminals were dealt with harshly - making death the punishment for practically all crimes.
Solon (SO-luhn)
Came to power in 594 B.C., implemented far reaching democratic reforms including the outlaw of debt slavery (no citizen should own another citizen). He organized all Athenian citizens into four social classes based on wealth. Only members of the top three could hold political office. All citizens could participate in the Athenian assembly. All citizens could bring charges against wrongdoers.
Pheidippides (fy-DIP-uh-DEEZ)
Young runner from the Athenian military who ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to deliver the message of the Persian defeat at Marathon & then collapsed and died.
Direct Democracy
Government ruled by its citizens in that the majority rules. Practiced in Athens around 500 B.C.
Phalanx
Fearsome military formation.
Persian Wars
War between Greece and the Persian Empire between 546 BC and 479 BC.
Pericles
Athenian leader from 461-429 B.C. whose goals were to strengthen Athenian democracy, strengthen the empire and glorify Athens.
Tragedy and Comedy
The Greeks wrote these two kinds of Greek drama.
Peloponnesian War
War between Athens and Sparta from 431 B.C. to 404 B.C.
Socrates
Greek philosopher who believed absolute standards did exist for truth and justice. He encouraged Greeks to go farther and question themselves and their moral character.
Plato
A student of Socrates who wrote the Republic - his vision for a perfectly governed society.
Aristotle
Greek philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge. His work provides the basis of the scientific knowledge.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia at the age of 20, student of Aristotle, he marched for 11 years and 11,000 miles and built a vast empire.
Hellenistic Culture
Greek culture that blended with Egyptian, Persian and other Indian influences.
Euclid
Highly regarded mathematician, who wrote Elements and became the basis for geometry courses.
Archimedes
He accurately estimated the value of pi.
Stoicism
Founded by Zeno, he founded the school of philosophy proposing that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that God established to run the universe.
Epicureanism
Founded by Epicurus, he taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe. He proposed that the main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of body and mind.
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