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IB Geography: Leisure, Sport, and Tourism
Terms in this set (63)
Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time
A physical activity involving a set of rules or customs. The activity may be competetive
Travel away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure (IB Definition). I would argue that tourism doesn't have to involve a night away from home. i think people going on day trips should also be included in a definition of tourism.
A leisure time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment.
tourism within the country of residency
Tourism outside the country of residency
Day trips (day tourism)
Visits to places of interest e.g. the beach or a ruin, but without staying overnight
Mass Tourism or package holiday
Large-scale tourism when flights, accommodation, tours and transfers are booked together and often part of a group.
Tourism that preserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people
Like sustainable tourism, but with a focus on the natural environment
Tourism based on historic legacy as its main focus e.g. natural landscape, historical buildings
A location that attracts a large number of tourists. Antigua in Guatemala would be considered a honeypot location in Central America
Money that is lost from a tourist destination. This money is often taken overseas by TNCs e.g. Intercontinental or Hilton
When people travel to other countries to undergo medical procedures e.g. dentistry or plastic surgery. This is done either because medical standards are better in the destination, or because medical treatment is cheaper in the destination
Primary tourist/recreation resources
Pre-existing tourist attractions that often exist naturally e.g. the weather, wildlife, beaches, indigenous people ore mountains
Secondary tourist/recreational resources
Facilities that have been purposefully built for tourists e.g. hotels, restaurants, golf courses, and airports
Tourism that goes to view wildlife in its natural habitat. Safaris are very common in Africa, e.g. Kenya, Tanzania, and Botswanna
A settlement where the primary function is tourism. Resorts are normally associated witht he coast. Large hotel complexes are considered to be resorts.
Trips that either go to play sport or view sport. Trips to the football World Cup or Olympics are becoming much more common
Hotels or resorts that tourists visit for health treatments. This may include massages, detoxes or mud treatments
When tourists pay a hotel complex one price which includes all meals, drinks, entertainment, activities, etc. All -inclusive holidays are very common in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean
Low-cost (Budget) airlines
Airlines that offer cheaper than normal flights, by removing add ons like airport check-in, in flight meals, checked baggage and pre-selected seats
Factor affecting growth of tourism: Economic Wealth
Even with the ongoing global economic downturn, the world economy is growing. This economic growth is being led by the so called emerging economies' e.g. China, Russia and India. With economic growth more individuals are removed from poverty and are able to afford to go on holiday. People can afford holidays when there disposable income increases. Disposable income is the amount of money left over after all bills are paid for.
amount of money left over after all bills are paid for
Factor affecting growth of tourism: Working week
In recent years the working week has been reduced for many people. In MEDCs, most people now only work 5 days, having both Saturday and Sunday off. In the EU the number of hours people can work in the week, has been set at 48 hours. Increasingly some companies allow their staff to work flex time. This means that they have a set number of hours they have to work, per week e.g. 48 hours, but they can choose when to work them. This might mean that they work 9.6 hours a day or 12 hours a day for four days and have the extra day off. These changes in the working week has meant that more people now have time to take short holidays at weekends
Factor affecting growth of tourism: (Paid) Holidays
Most countries now have laws stating that companies have to give their employees paid leave. In the EU the minimum amount of paid holiday is 28 days. If you add on weekends, this is nearly six weeks of paid holidays. Because of the extra paid holiday more people now have the time and money to be able to go on holiday.
Factor affecting growth of tourism:Transport
Over the past 50 years the relative cost of transport has fallen and the ease of moving between countries has increased. Car ownership has increased, new train networks have been built and new airports opened. In the last decade low-cost airlines have emerged and increased tourism. Low-cost airlines offer cheaper flights than normal airlines by removing added extras like airport check-in, in-flight meals, checked baggage and seat selection. The growth of transport has meant people can go on more holidays and also go on shorter holidays (weekend breaks)
Factor affecting growth of tourism: Advertising
We are now saturated with advertising on bill boards, in magazines, on TV and increasingly online. These adverts make us aware of new destinations and persuade us to visit new places. There has also been a growth of TV programs just about holiday destinations
Factor affecting growth of tourism: Credit cards
The emergence of credit cards has made it much easier to pay for holidays and it has made it easier for people to buy things once on holiday. Credit cards can be used to pay for hotels and flights online and can be used to pay for things on holiday or take local currency out of ATMs. Credit cards remove the worry of carrying large amount of money and the time of exchanging currencies.
Factor affecting growth of tourism: Accommodation
In recent decades the quality and quantity of accommodation has improved. Accommodation can vary from basic shared dormitories to luxury hotel suites. The increased variety and quality mean more people are now comfortable about traveling abroad.
Factor affecting growth of tourism: Booking
Booking flights and hotels is now much easier. You can use a travel agent, but increasingly more people are going online to book their own flights and hotels and flights either directly or through agents. It is also possible to look at customer reviews so you can assess the quality of hotels
Case Study: Qatar
Instead of being held in the traditional period of June and July, this tournament will be held starting from late November, and ending with the final on 18 December 2022, which is also Qatar National Day. The tournament will also be played in a reduced timeframe of about 28 days.
Accusations of corruption have been made relating to how Qatar won the right to host the event. FIFA completed a lengthy investigation into these allegations and a report cleared Qatar of any wrongdoing, but the chief investigatorMichael Garcia has since described FIFA's report on his inquiry as "materially incomplete and erroneous." (Wikipedia)
Sagrada Familia, big and nice af church
Case study: Maldives
Under threat from rising sea levels, so country went carbon neutral, education in environmental science, buying up land nearby, and making floating convention centers (golf course), threat of tsunamis.
Case Study: Vietnam
Improved transportation (especially air travel, which is the main way most tourists arrive)
Deregulation. Vietnam still has a Communist system, but the ruling party has allowed greater private ownership.
Relaxed immigration. Visas are still required, but these are now a lot easy to obtain.
Better image. The war has been finished over 30 years and now tourists are saying much better things about Vietnam.
Better advertising at home and abroad.
Investment in hotels and restaurants
Exchange rate (once you are in Vietnam it is still a relatively cheap place to visit).
Excellent human and physical attractions (see below)
Saturation of neighboring countries like Thailand and Malaysia.
UNESCO: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization was established on 16 November 1945. Its purpose is to promote peace and security by promoting international collaboration on science, education and culture. One thing that it does do is designate and places that have scientific or cultural significance. In 2010 there were 915 designated sites around the world.
Case Study: Costa Rica
Costa Rica, located in Central America, often advertises itself as an ecotourism location. The government has actively promoted ecotourism to create jobs and income in a country which has seen a decline the primary sector. Small-scale sustainable tourist developments have been promoted in protected areas. One of these areas in the Monteverde cloud forest.
80 new businesses have opened in Monteverde since 1970's
The Reserva Biológica Bosque Nuboso Monteverde now covers over 10,500 hectares
The large Santa Elena reserve (300 hectares) has also been established
Many much smaller reserves have also been created, increasing the size of the protected area e.g. Arenal Conservation Area
There are 400 full-time and 140 part-time jobs directly related to tourism - there are many more indirect jobs.
The Monteverde reserve employs over 50 staff
The reserve actually budgets to train and educate locals and tourists about ecotourism and protection of the reserve
Access to the cloud forest is strictly controlled. Trails in both reserves are only limited to certain areas, allowing wildlife to exist undisturbed elsewhere.
Locals arts and crafts have been rejuvenated
An increase in the quantity and variety ecotourist activities e.g. canopy walks
Local population and private sector value the cloud forest as its creates income. It is worth more standing than being cut down.
Case Study: Sochi
In preparation, organizers focused on modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportation infrastructures of the region. While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, various factors caused the budget to expand to over US$51 billion, surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing as the most expensive Olympics in history (Wikipedia).
Case Study: Haiti
Earthquake, govt. trying to make tourist spot to make $$$, but most of Haiti not meant for tourism due to poor conditions and dangerous. Also, poverty areas fenced off form tourist location.
Case Study: Mt. Everest (Nepal/Tibet)
Disaster, booming tourism changed Sherpa's lives, Mt. Everest climbers are being asked to pick up the garbage that's piling up on the mountain. Violators could be fined or banned. Went from agrarian to society with more modern tech.
Case Study: Belize
First countries to promote itself as ecotourism, primary tourist resources, reserves
Case Study: Tunisia
Health tourism as a developing strategy in Tunisia. Demand for health tourism grew, based on helping mind and body together, where body ailments are treated in a relaxing atmosphere that takes away the stress of daily life. Bathing in warm sea water.
Case Study: Rugby in South Africa
Rugby super important: Super 14, Currie Cup, and the Vodacom Cup
Case Study: Carrying Capacity in Venice
Carrying capacity, day trippers don't contribute much, locals alienated and leave.
Case Study: Leonardo DiCaprio
Bought Blackadore Caye, unpopoulated land off of coast of Belize to make it into an eco friendly resort.
The Aral Sea
The Aral Sea used to be the fourth largest inland lake in the world. Since the 1960's the sea has been shrinking because the two rivers have been diverted to irrigate the desert. The USSR decided to irrigate the desert because they wanted to increase their production of melons, rice, wheat and cotton. Because the irrigation canals were built quickly and poorly maintained, it has been estimated that up to 75% of water gets lost through evaporation or leakage
Importance of Wetlands
•Flood control: Wetland vegetation can reduce the velocity of rivers
flowing into them or from them and act as natural stores of water.
•Groundwater recharge: Wetlands can collect large areas of precipitation
and river discharge. As this water is held in storage it will infiltrate and
percolate into the ground to recharge groundwater.
•Transport Network: Wetland provide many natural waterways that
people can move around on easily.
Conflict over water is likely to increase because of:
Population growth, agriculture, groundwater extraction, shared resources
River Jordan Drainage Basin
Apart from the River Jordan, the mountain aquifer, largely
found in Palestinian territory is the main source of water
in Israel and the West Bank. The mountain aquifer in the
occupied West Bank is largely used by Israel (80%), only
leaving 20% for the Palestinians. The Israel's claim that
they have the right to use the aquifer, because some of the
water flows (groundwater flow or base flow) into Israeli
territory. The coastal aquifer (in the Gaza Strip - also part of
the Palestinian territory), is becoming exhausted and at
threat from saltwater intrusion as well as domestic and
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 2011 Floods and Mudslides
The floods and mudslides in Brazil were caused by a combination of human
and physical causes.
• Deforestation of hillsides
• Building on marginal land
• No building regulations
Much of the state of the Rio de Janeiro lies in the drainage basin of the river
'Paraiba do Sul'.
• Steep drainage basins and valley sides. Much of Rio and the
surrounding area is very mountainous. The steep valleys means
that any rainfall reaches streams and rivers very quickly causing
• High levels of precipitation.
• Brazil experiences a tropical climate and the south east of Brazil
Israeli-Jordan peace, Israel agreed to provide Jordan with water by diverting water and building new dams and desalinization.
Managing the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia)
Demand for water increased, water became unhealthily salty. Number of fish falling, toxic algae flourished, so Australia embarked on series of reform. Reforms include: no more subsidies for irrigation, farmers responsible for maintenance of channels and dams, ensure that extractions didn't exceed more than limit. States made much progress as salinity fell.
Flooding In Bangladesh
Much of the country has been formed by deposition. Almost all of its rivers have their source outside the country. Advantages: replenish ground water reserves, provide nutrient-rich sediment for agriculture, provide fish, reduce need for artificial fertilizers, flush pollutants and pathogens away
Kissimmee River (Florida)(freshwater issues and conflicts)
The Kissimmee River underwent channelization as people tried to shape the river. This had many consequences such as hurting the wildlife there, floodplain dried up, more pollution, tourism decreased, and people had to pay more money to reverse the damage caused by channelization.
River Jordan(freshwater issues and conflicts)
The River Jordan was an issue because not everyone had access to the water and there was dispute over who had rights to it, so there was a physical/social deprivation of water. As a result, many people's agricultural output was hurt because they couldn't water their crops.
Aswad Dam (Egypt)(freshwater issues and conflicts)
Egypt created a dam on the Nile River and created a reservoir from it. This negatively impacted the water in many ways because the evaporation rate was greater than the precipitation/recharge. Advantages: flood an drought control, irrigation, hydroelectric power, improved navigation, recreation and tourism. Costs: water losses, dam provides less than water expected, salinization, crop yields reduced, groundwater changes (seepage leads to increased groundwater levels), displacement of population, increase in humidity of area led to increased weathering of ancient monuments, increased storage of water in reservoir, seismic stress, deposition within lake, channel erosion, erosion of Nile delta, loss of nutrients so people have to buy chemicals, decreased fish catches, spread of diseases due to stagnant water.
York and the drainage basin of the Ouse(freshwater issues and conflicts)
York deals with flood/discharge control due to the issues of the weather, rainfall, and likelihood to flood. It has various ways to deal with flood, but many people began to feel like flooding wasn't a serious threat over time.
Las Vegas and the Great Basin Aquifer(freshwater issues and conflicts)
Las Vegas makes the most money in Nevada but also wastes the most water. in order to solve this, people supporting Las Vegas bought out agricultural lands and wanted to take the groundwater and water used by plants. They would then send the water to Las Vegas. A repercussion is that it hurts the agricultural output and family farmers. Additionally, plants that needed this water would die off.
Mekong River (freshwater issues and conflicts)
Lot of catfish waste discharged into environment. River navigable in sections and sand is dredged with little regulation or concern for the environmental impact. Tourism is also very important as it helps local boat owners, guest houses, restaurants, and other local groups. Mekong is very active for development of hydropower, but there are environmental concerns. There are plans to build dams on the river, but there are protests because of extent and severity of impacts are unknown. There is also no guarantee that the money will benefit the people of the country.
Flooding brings a much needed water supply for rice farming.
•Flooding spreads alluvium on floodplains making the soil
much more fertile.
•It recharges groundwater supplies
•It flushes pollutants from the water and the land.
•Floods can also refill fish ponds (aquaculture), but also run
the risk of allowing fish to escape.
Short Term Impacts of 2012 London Olympics
- Direct and indirect creation of jobs
- No cars allowed in olympic village reduces air pollution
- Increase in tax revenue
- Increased traffic around Olympic areas due to road closures
- Possible terrorist target
- Increased cost of hotels/restaurants
- Less money directed towards roads, schools, etc.
Long term impacts of London 2012 olympics
- Venues available for future decades
- Increased land value due to urban regeneration
- Improved (infrastructure) public transport benefits business
- Increased tax bill for next ten years
- Short-term job creation
- Increased demand may create inflation
- Long-term debt paying off games
Explanation of ecotourism in Costa Rica
Monteverde, Cloud Forest
- Extremely diverse flora and fauna (2,500 plant species, 100 species of mammals)
- Tourism initially developed by about 5,000 Quakers who had interest in maintaining the forest
- 50,000 tourists a year in 1990s; 1 million a year now bringing in $1.2 billion
- To prevent growth from increasing too big, locals asked road not to be paved
Negative impacts of ecotourism in Costa Rica
Land prices have increased
- More immigrants has caused increased pressure on infrastructure
- 40% of amphibians have become extinct, including the Golden Toad
- Some activities don't promote sustainability (i.e. zipline)
- 4x4s kick up dust and use petrol on dirt road
Impacts of tourism in Venice
- Since there is only one connection between Venice and mainland, taxis cause severe traffic
- Inflation due to increased demand
- Local shops going out of business
- Tourist intrusion on places of worship
- Tourists feeding pigeons which have acidic waste that damages ancient statues and buildings
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