69 terms

Sports Med: Chapter 22- The Chest and the Abdomen

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abdominal cavity
the area of the body that contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix, and part of the large intestine
abdominopelvic cavity
the area from below the diaphragm to the pubic floor, with no separation between the abdomen and the pelvis
afferent arteriole
structure that takes blood from the renal artery to the Bowman's capsule
bilirubin
one of two pigments that determines the color of bile; reddish in color
Bowman's capsule
the double-walled capsule around the glomerulus of a nephron
bronchoconstriction
narrowing of the bronchioles
cardiac sphincter
circular muscle fibers around the cardiac end of the esophagus
cardiac tamponade
the buildup of fluid in the pericardium
celiac plexus
a cluster of nerves located in the upper middle region of the abdomen; also known as the solar plexus
cellular respiration
the use of oxygen to release energy from the cell
chest contusion
bruising over the central area of the chest as a result of a compressive blow to the chest
cecum
a pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine
collecting tubule
the structure in the nephron that collects urine from the distal convoluted tubule
common bile duct
the passage that brings bile to the duodenum
distal convoluted tubule
the tubular structure that ascends to the cortex from the loop of Henle.
efferent arteriole
the structure that carries blood from the glomerulus
epigastric region
the upper region of the abdomen
exercised-induced asthma
airway narrowing as a result of increased physical activity
external respiration
breathing; the act of inspiration and expiration
false ribs
the five pairs of lower ribs that connect to the seventh rib rather than to the sternum, or make no anterior connection
flail chest
a fracture of three or more consecutive ribs on the same of the chest
glomerulus
a collection of porous capillaries within the Bowman's capsule of the nephron
glottis
the space within the vocal cords of the larynx
hemopneumothorax
the accumulation of blood in the pleural space
hilum
the indentation along the medial border of the kidney
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
thickening of the cardiac muscle
hyperventilation
breathing at a faster rate than is required for proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
hypogastric region
the lower region of the abdomen
internal respiration
the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the cells and the lymph surrounding them; the oxidative process of energy in the cells
Kehr's sign
pain that radiates to the left shoulder and two-thirds of the way down the left arm, resulting from a kidney contusion
kidney contusion
bruising the kidney
loop of Henle
the proximal convoluted tubule that descends into the medulla
mediastinum
the intrapleural space separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind
myocardial contusion
bruising of the heart muscle
nasal septum
the partition between the two nasal cavitites
olfactory nerves
nerve that supplies the nasal mucosa and provides a sense of smell
cellular respiration (oxidation)
the use of oxygen to release energy from the cell
paradoxial
the opposite of what is expected
pelvic cavity
the area of the body containing the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, and the remainder of the large intestine
pleural space
the space between the lung and the chest wall
pleurisy
inflammation of the lining of the lungs
pneumothorax
air that enters the pleural space between the chest wall and the lung
proximal convoluted tubule
the twisted, tubular branch off the Bowman's capsule
pyloric sphincter
a valve that regulates the entrance of food from the stomach to the duodenum
renal fascia
the tough, fibrous tissue covering the kidney
renal pelvis
the funnel-shaped structure at the beginning of the ureter
respiration
the physical and chemical process by which the body supplies its cells and tissues with oxygen and relieves them of carbon dioxide
retroperitoneal
meaning to be located behind the perotenium
rib contusion
bruising of the intercostal muscles by the direct blow to the ribs
rib fracture
a break in the bony structure of the thorax
side stitches
pain that occurs just under the ribcage during vigorous exercise
sigmoid colon
the S-shaped portion of the colon
spirometer
a device that measures the volume and flow of air during inspiration and expiration
spleen
large lymphatic organ that filters blood and helps activate the immune system
spontaneous pneumothorax
the rupture of a weakened area of the lung, which allows air to escape into the pleural space
sucking chest wound
an open wound in the chest that allows air to enter and become trapped in the pleural space
sudden death syndrome
the rapid collapse and death of an otherwise healthy person; usually the result of an unknown congenital disorder.
tension pnuemothorax
the entrapment of air in the pleural space, causing pressure on the lung and heart
tidal volume
the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath
transverse colon
the portion of the colon that veers left across the abdomen to the spleen
true ribs
the first seven pairs of ribs which connect directly to the sternum
umbilical area
the area located around the navel
urinary bladder
a muscular, membrane-lined sac used to hold urine
urinary meatus
the opening to the urethra
vermiform appendix
a finger-like projection, of unknown function, that protrudes into the abdominal cavity to the lower left of the cecum
alveoli
air sacs
jaundice
a medical condition with yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, arising from excess of bilirubin and typically caused by obstruction of the bile duct, by liver disease, or excessive breakdown of red blood cells
pleura
lung membrane
ileum
last portion of the small intestine