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Mastering Biology Ch. 17
Terms in this set (19)
In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.
RNA polymerase untwists a portion of the DNA double helix.
In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.
The promoter is the region of DNA at which the process of transcription begins.
In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____.
Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.
5' —> 3'.
Nucleotides are added to the 3' end of RNA.
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
modified guanine nucleotide.
The 5' cap consists of a modified guanine nucleotide.
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
a long string of adenine nucleotides.
A poly-A tail is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
Spliceosomes are composed of _____.
small RNAs and proteins.
Spliceosomes are complexes composed of small RNAs and proteins.
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.
Exons are expressed regions.
Translation occurs in the _____.
cytoplasm. Ribosomes, the sites of translation, are found in the cytoplasm.
Sort each description by the type of RNA it describes.
tRNA: contains an anticodon, has amino acids covalently attached to it
mRNA: contains exons, specifies the amino acid sequence for a protein
rRNA: is a component of ribosomes, is the most abundant form of RNA
Indicate at which step of the replication-transcription-translation process each type of RNA first plays a role.
Transcription/RNA processing: mRNA
Translation: tRNA, rRNA
During replication, a faithful copy of a DNA molecule is made.
During transcription, the DNA "message" is copied onto a molecule of mRNA.
During translation, the information carried in the mRNA is transferred to molecules of tRNA to build a protein on the ribosomes.
Where does translation take place?
Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein?
mRNA is the message that is translated to make a protein
Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification?
Enzymes can phosphorylate proteins to alter their activity.
Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation?
The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex.
This step occurs after the 5' mRNA is bound by the ribosome and the start codon is bound by an aminoacyl tRNA.
At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation?
This is the site at which new aminoacyl tRNAs that are complementary to the mRNA codon enter the ribosome.
What is meant by translocation?
The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA.
Translocation is the process by which the ribosome slides down the mRNA so a new cycle of elongation can begin.
True or false. A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the stop codon catalyzes the reaction by which translation is terminated.
There are no tRNAs complementary to the three stop codons; termination occurs when release factors recognize the stop codon in the A-site and catalyze the release of the polypeptide from the tRNA in the P-site.
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