Terms in this set (88)
Carbohydrate molecules contain?
Carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen atoms, 1:2:1 ratio
Simple sugars are?
General formula of carbohydrates?
Sugars in a polysaccharide are linked together by bonds to a
The monomer of both starch and cellulose is
A disaccharide is formed from how many monosaccharides?
The sweetest naturally occuring sugar is?
What's the chemical formula for disaccharide sucrose?
Breaking down polysaccharides occurs through a process called
What type of biological molecule provides the mainsource of human food energy
Which describes a function of glucose in the human body
What two carbohydrates are produced by plants
Starch and Cellulose
Biomolecules that are most often insoluble in water are
The two most abundant elements found in lipids are
Carbon and Hydrogen
Fatty acids without any carbon-carbon double bonds are called
Saturated Fatty Acids
What do all fatty acids have?
Hydrophilic polar heads and nonpolar tails
The part of a fat molecule that allows it to interact with polar molecules is the
An example of a lipid is a
The biomolecules that are the most efficient at storing energy are
Saponifiable lipids that form most of a cell membrane are
In order for the acid base reaction called saponification to occur, what must react
Fat and NaOH
Phospholipids in the cell membrane form a bilayer because
Helps a cell maintain stable internally
The precursor of many hormones is
Individuals that have a high concentration of cholesterol in their blood have a condition called?
What are the characteristic functional groups of the monomers that form proteins?
A basic -NH2 amino group and an acidic -COOH carboxylic acid group (amino acid)
The reaction of amino acids to form a protein is an example of?
How many amino acids can a human body synthesize?
An example of a protein is?
Keratin, Enzymes, hemoglobin, insulin, antibodies
An amino acid that the body does not synthesize and therefore must be supplied through food is called?
Essential amino acid
Cysteine is unique among amino acids because it does what?
Because the -SH group in cysteine can form a covalent bond with another cysteine side chain
Side chains affect a protein's structure by
their interactions with each other to create a tertiary structure
What aspect of a protein is described as a tertiary structure?
It's three dimensional shape
The sequence of amino acids determine which aspect of a protein structure?
The Primary Structure
Generally, nonpolar amino acids tend to reside where?
he genetic trait of curly hair is a result of what?
Many disulfide bridges in hair protein
Hemoglobin is a protein that is responsible for?
Carrying oxygen to the blood
The protein found in nails and hooves is called?
Proteins are responsible for?
The bodies main source of nitrogen and sulfur
An example of a fibrous protein is?
Keratin, Collagen, Fibrin
The specific function of a protein is determined by its
Amino Acid Group/ Polypeptide
In the genetic disease sickle cell anemia, the amino acid glutamic acid is replaced by what?
Enzymes are specialized proteins that do what?
Increase reaction rate
Which part of a protein structure can be affected by denaturing?
The shape and it can affect it's function
The active site of an enzyme functions by?
Lock and Key method
When an enzyme interacts with a substrate the enzyme
forms an enzyme-substrate complex
An enzyme increases the rate of a reaction by?
Reducing activation energy
The optimal pH for most normal cellular enzyme functions is in
The neutral range, 7.3-7.4
All of the chemical processes that occur in an organism, are part of the organism's
The overall photosynthesis reaction is?
Carbohydrate forming reaction
In order to synthesize proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, cells require
ATP or Energy
The process of photosynthesis occurs in organelles called?
Living things that depend on plants or animals for food are?
The only structural difference between ATP and ADP is?
The number of phosphate groups
The primary energy exchange mechanism in the body is?
The cycle between ATP and ADP
Energy is released when?
ATP is Hydrolized into ADP
The hydrolysis of ATP is?
When the energy is released to help supports cells
The hydrolysis reaction of ATP is shown in which equation?
H20 + ATP -> PO2OH2 + ADP
A series of chemical reactions in the mitochondria that convert glucose, fatty acids, or glycerol into carbon dioxide, NADH, and ATP is known as?
Citric acid cycle
An example of Catabolism is?
Digestion of fats in the stomach
Energy is needed for?
Biosynthesis reactions to occur
Simple molecules are used to build bigger ones through a process called?
In gluconeogenesis, glucose is synthesized from?
The base sequence GGCATGCCA can represent part of a sequence of?
The base sequence GGCAAGCCA can represent part of a sequence of?
DNA or RNA
In a DNA molecule, base sequence of the two strands is
The sugar in DNA is
Nucleic acids are built from units consisting of?
A sugar, phosphate, and a base
The complementary DNA base sequence for the following DNA sequence, ATTGACCAT is?
The complementary RNA base sequence for the following DNA sequence, ATTGACCAT is?
The corresponding RNA base sequence for the following DNA sequence, TAGCTCTAC is?
A gene is a sequence of DNA that holds the code for?
The first step in protein synthesis is?
The transcription of mRNA from a DNA gene in the nucleus.
DNA replication results in the formation of an identical
When DNA replication begins...
a portion of the two strands of the original DNA unzips
An amino acid is coded by a
Sequence of three bases of mRNA
The amino acid Leucine is coded by the base sequence, UUA in
everyone, the code UUA is universal, meaning that the same three-base code always codes for the same amino acid sequence
The sequence UUUCCCCGAAACGAC provides the code
5 amino acids
The process used in genetic fingerprinting to multiply the available DNA
Polymerse Chain reaction
DNA fingerprinting is used in
criminal investigation and victim identification, as well as determining paternity and heredity
Identical replicas of parent a cell can be made through
What technique is used to make bacteria to produce drugs?
Diabetes used human insulin that has been produced by
Bacteria and Harvested
What happens in the process of recombinant DNA technology
a gene is spliced from one organism's DNA into a molecule of DNA from another molecule.
How do the structures of cellulose and starch differ?
Cellulose chains are linked by Hydrogen bonds. Cellulose chains are arranged in vertical lines while starch structures consist of fewer bonds and are arranged horizontally.
What roles do lipids play in living systems?
Lipids provide most of the nutrients in living systems' diets. They provide fats and oils found in your food which provides energy to the body.
What is a peptide bond? What is the reaction that forms it?
A peptide bond is the bond formed during the condensation reaction of two amino acids join together and water is formed, resulting in a dipeptide.
Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures.
The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure describes how the chain is coiled or arranged in space. The tertiary structure is what gives the proteins its characteristic three-dimensional shape. The quaternary structure is when you put two or more polypeptide chains together.
How do the structures of DNA and RNA differ?
The sugar backbone units in DNA and RNA are different, RNA contains a sugar known as ribose while the sugar in DNA is known as deoxyribose. The RNA strand also contains Uracil instead of Thymine which is the only other structural difference, as Uracil contains a Hydrogen atom where a CH3 atom is in the Thymine base.