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154 terms

Chapter 5 Anatomy and Physiology

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Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform a common function; helps maintain homeostasis
Matrix
Nonliving intercellular material that surrounds or embeds cells in a tissue/ some tissues contain almost no intercellular matrix, others almost entirely matrix with only few present/ some types have fibers that make them flexible or elastic; others have mineral crystals that make them rigid and others are very fluid
Histology
biology of tissues
Epithelial tissue
covers and protects the body surface, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood (secretion, excretion, and absorption), forms many glands/ CONTAINS NO BLOOD VESSELS/ said to be avascular/ desmosomes and tight junctions hold epithelial cells together/ cells can reproduce themselves
Connective tissue
supports the body and its parts; connects and holds them together, transport substances through the body, protect from foreign invaders/ cells relatively far apart and separated by large amounts of nonliving matrix
Muscle tissue
produces movement; moves body and its parts/ cells are specialized for contractility and produce movement by shortening of contractile units found in cytoplasm
Nervous tissue
most complex tissue in the body/ specializes in communication between various parts of the body and integration of their activites/ Major function- generation of complex messages for the coordination of body functions
Embryonic development of tissues
Four major tissues appear early (first two months after conception)/ After fertilization, repeated cell division converts single-celled zygote into hollow ball of cells called blastocyst
Blastocyst
Hollow ball of cells/ implants in uterus/ within 2 weeks, cells move and regroup into three primary germ layers
Primary germ layers
Endoderm- epithelial/Mesoderm- epithelial, connective, muscle/Ectoderm-epithelial, nervous
Gastrulation
process by which blastocysts cells move and then differentiate into the three primary germ layers/ cells in each germ layer become increasingly differentiated to form specific tissues
Histogenesis
process of the primary germ layers differentiating into the different kinds of tissues
Membranous epithelium
covers the body and some of its parts and lines the serous cavities (pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal), blood and lymphatic vessels, and respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary tracts
Glandular epithelium
Grouped in solid cords or specialized follicles that form the secretory units of endocrine and exocrine glands/ speicialized for secretory acitivity/ function singly as unicellular glands or in clusters, solid cords, or specialized follicles as multicellular glands
Functions of Epithelial Tissue: Protection
most important function of membranous epithelium/ relatively tough and impermeable covering of the skin that protects the body from mechanical and chemical injury and also from bacteria and other disease-causing microorganisms
Functions of Epithelial Tissue: Sensory Function
found in skin, nose, eyes, and ears
Functions of Epithelial Tissue: Secretion
Glandular epithelium specialized for secretory activity, includes hormones, mucus, digesetive juices, and sweat
Functions of Epithelial Tissue: Absorption
lining epithelium of gut and respiratory tract allows for absorption of nutrients from gut and exchange of respiratory gases between air in lungs and blood
Functions of Epithelial Tissue: Excretion
epithelial lining of kidney tubules makes excretion and concentration of excretory products in urine possible
Basement membrane
thin noncellular layer of adhesive, permeable material
Basal lamina
glycoprotein material secreted by the epithelial cells
Reticular lamina
connective tissue fibers/ basal and this together form basement membrane
Integrins
adhesive molecules that help bind cytoskeletons of epithelial cells to fibers of basement membrane, forming a strong connection
Squamous
(Latin, "scaly") flat and plate-like
Cuboidal
cube shaped and have more cytoplasm than squamous cells
Columnar
higher than they are wide; look narrow and cylindrical
Pseudostratified columnar
one layer of odd shaped columnar cells (pseudo- false)
Simple epithelium
arrangement of epithelial cells in a single layer
Stratified epithelium
epithelial cells layered on one another
Transitional epithelium
unique arrangement of differing cell shapes in a stratified, or layered, epithelial sheet
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Consists of one layer of flat, scale-like cells/ substances can diffuse or filter/ microscopic air sacs (alveoli) of lungs are composed of this tissue, as well as linings of blood and lymphatic vessles and surfaces of pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Composed of one layer of cuboidal cells resting on basement membrane/ seen in many glands and their ducts/ also found in ducts and tubules of other organs, such as kidneys
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Composes surface of mucous membrane that lines the stomach, intestine, uterus, uterine tubes, and parts of respiratory tract/ consists of single layer of cells/ three common modifications: Goblet cells, cilia, and microvilli
Goblet cells
large, secretory vesicles; vesicles contain mucus that goblet cells produce and secrete onto surface of epithlial membrane
Microvillie
Microscopic fingerlike projections in the intestine/ increases the surface area of intestinal mucous/ absorb nutrients and fluids from intestine
Psuedostratified Columnar epithelium
Found in lining of air passages of respiratory system and urethra in males/ only single layer of irregularly shaped columnar cells touch basement membrane/ mucus-secreting goblet cells are numerous and cilia is present
Stratified Squamous (Keratinized) Epithelium
Multiple layers of cells which flattened squamous cells at free, or outer surface of epithelial sheet/ keratin present in cells contributes to protective qualities of skin covering body surface
Stratified Squamous (Nonkeratinized) Epithelium
Found lining vagina, mouth and esophagus/ free surface is moist/ outer epithlial cells do not contain keratin/ serves as protective function
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Serves as protective function/ can be located in sweat gland ducts, pharynx, and over parts of epiglottis
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Mulptiple layers of columnar cells but only superficial cells are columnar in appearance/ found in male urethra and mucous layer near anus
Stratified Transitional Epithelium
Found in walls of urinary bladder that are subjected to tension and stress/ 10 or more layers of cuboidal cells present in absence of stretching or tension/ Cell shape changes from cuboidal to squamous in appearance
Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
Multicellular glands often classified by structure, using shape of ducts and complexity (branching) of duct systems/ shapes include tubular and alveolar (saclike)/ simple exocrine glands have only one duct leading to surface/ compound glands have two or more ducts
Aporcine glands
collect secretory products near apex, tip, of cell and release into a duct by pinching off distended end; results in some loss of cytoplasm and damage to cell; recovery and repair of cell is rapid and continued secretion occurs; milk-producing mammary glands are examples
Holocrine
Such as sabaceous glands that produce oil to lubricate skin- collect secretory product inside cell and rupture to release it; SELF-DESTRUCT
Merocrine
discharge secretion product through cell or plasma membrane; completed without injury to cell wall or without loss of cytoplasm; secretion product passes from glandular cell into duct; salivary glands are an example
Functions of Connective Tissue
Connects, supports, transports, and defends/ Connects tissues to each other/muscles to muscles/ muscles to bone/ bones to bones/ supporting framework for the body as a whole and individual organs/ Blood is an example- transports large array of substances between parts of body/ Defend us against microorganisms and other invaders
Characteristics of Connective Tissue
Consists predominantly of intercellular material called matrix. Connective tissue's matrix contains one or more kinds of fibers: Collagenous (white), Reticular, Elastic
Collagenous
(White) Tough and strong; made of collagen; often occurs in bundles
Reticular
Delicate; occur in networks; supports small structures such as capillaries and nerve fibers; made of a type of collagen called reticulun
Elastic
Extensible and elastic; made of protein called elastin; returns to original length after being stretched; fibers found in "stretchy" tissues such as cartilage of external ear
Gelatin
Collagen in hydrated form is known as
Fibroblasts
Produces protein fibers/ most present in areolar tissue/ synthesize gel-like ground substance and fibers
4 major types of Connective tissue
Fibrous- loose, ordinary (areolar, adipose, reticular, dense
Bone
Cartilage- Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic
Blood
Fibrous Tissues
Have extracellular fibers as their predominant feature
Bone
Has fibers and a hard mineral ground substance
Cartilage
Has fibers and specialized ground substance that traps water to form a firm gel
Blood
Characterized by lack of fibers in the matrix
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Loose connective tissue is also called areolar tissue. Stretchable and most widely distributed of all tissues/ Matrix of areolar tissue is soft, thick gel because it contains hyaluronic acid
Macrophages
Second most present in areolar tissue/ AKA (histiocytes and resting wandering cells) Carry on phagocytosis/ classified as phagocytes/ derive from white blood cells
Leukocytes
White blood cells/ found in loose ordinary connective tissue; occasional fat cells and some plasma cells (all mast cells)
Adipose Tissue
Contains predominantly fat cells and many fewer fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells/ supporting, protective pads around kidneys and various other structures/ constitutes a storage depot for excess food/ acts as an insulating material to conserve body heat
Reticular tissue
3D web, reticular network, identifies reticular tissue/ slender, branching reticular fibers with reticular cells overlying them/ branches of cytoplasm of reticular cells follow branching reticular fibers/ forms framework of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow functions as part of body's complex mechanism for defending itself against injurious substances/ filters injurious substances out of blood and lymph/ Reticular cells phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them/ makes reticular fibers
Dense Fibrous Tissue
Consists mainly of fibers packed densely in the matrix/ contains relatively few fibroblast cells/ some dense fibrous tissues are designated as regular or irregular
Dense Fibrous (Regular) Tissue
Bundles of fibers arranged in regular, parallel rows/ composed of collagenous fibers and flexible but had great tensile strength/ desirable in structures that anchor muslce to bone such as tendons
Dense Fibrous (Irregular) Tissue
Ligaments (connect bone to bone) have predominance of elastic fibers/ bundles of fibers are not arranged in parallel rows/ fibers intertwine to form thick mat of strong connective tissue that can withstand stresses applied from any direction/ Forms strong inner skin layer called dermis/ also forms outer capsule of such organs such as kidney and the spleen
Bone Tissue
AKA osseous tissue/ organs of skeletal system/ provide support and protection for body and serve points of attachment for muscles/ calcified matrix of bones serves as a mineral reservoir for the body
Osteocytes
Mature cells of bone embedded in matrix material containing both organic collagen material and mineral salts/ inorganic (bone salt) portion makes up about 65% of total matrix and responsible for hardness of bone/ located in small spaces, or lacunae, which are arranged in concentric layers of bone matrix called lamella
Canaliculi
Small canals that connect each lacuna and osteocytes with nutrient blood vessels found in central Haversian canal.
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts
Bone destorying cells/ can dissolve the bone away from mature osteocyte and release it again to become an active osteoblast/ mature bones can grow and be reshaped by simultaneous activity of osteoclasts breaking down and remove existing bone tissue as osteoblasts lay down new bone
Membrane bones
(Flat bones of skull) formed within membranous tissue
Endochondral ossification
long bones such as humerus are formed indirectly through replacement of cartilage
Chondrocyte
Only cell present in cartilage/ produce fibers and tough, gristle-like ground substance of cartilage/ found in small openings, like bone cells, called lacunae/ Cartilage is avascular (lacking blood vessels), so nutrients must reach cells by diffusion/ movement is through matrix from blood vessels located in specialized connective tissue membrane called perichondrium/ injuries heal slowly because of inefficient method of nutrient delivery
Hyaline Cartilage
Low amount of collagen in matrix gives cartilage a shiny, translucent appearance/ most prevalent type of cartilage and found in support rings of respiratory tubes and covers end of bones that articulate at joints
Fibrocartilage
Strongest and most durable type of cartilage, Matrix is rigid and filled with a dense packaging of strong white collagen fibers/ disks serves as shock absorbers between adjacent vertebrae (intervertebral disks) and in knee joint/ damage to fibrocartilage pads or joint menisci (curved pads) in the knee occurs frequently because of spot-related injuries
Elastic Cartilage
Contain few collagen fibers but large numbers of fine elastic fibers that give matrix material a high degree of flexibility/ found in external ear and voice box, or larynx
Connective Tissue: Blood
Most unusual connective tissue because it is liquid and contains neither ground substance nor fibers. Cells can be divided into three classes: Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Platelets/ performs many body transport functions, including movement of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), nutrients and waste products/ plays critical role in maintaining a constant body temp and regulating pH of body fluids/ White blood cells destroy harmful microorganisms/ circulating blood tissue formed in red marrow of bones and in other tissues by process of differentiation called hematopoiesis
Red Blood cells
Erythrocytes
White Blood Cells
Leukocytes
Platelets
Thrombocytes
Hematopoietic tissue
Blood-forming tissue is sometimes given status of a separate connective tissue type
Skeletal muscle tissue
Composes muscles attached to bones; many cross striations, many nuclei per cell, and long, narrow, threadlike shape of cells
Smooth muscle tissue
sometimes called visceral muscle tissue, found in walls of viscera (hollow internal organs) also known as nonstriated involuntary/ has no cross striations and cannot ordinarily be controlled by the will/ long, narrow fibers but not as long as striated fibers/ have only one nucleus per fiber and are nonstriated or smooth in appearance
Cardiac
Makes up wall of heart/ also known as striated voluntary muscle/ has cross striations and contractions cannot ordinarily be controlled by will/ seem to be incomplete cells that branch into each other to form a big continuous mass of cytopasm (a syncytium)/ Electron microscope reveals that intercalated disks are places where plasma membranes of two cardiac fibers abut.
Striated
refers to cross striations (stripes) visible in microscopic slides of tissue
Voluntary
Indicated that voluntary or willed control of skeletal muscle contractions is possible
Nervous tissue characteristics
Basic function is to regulate activities of different parts of body/ much more developed excitability (ability of muscle to be stimulated) and conductivity characteristics than any other type organs of nervous system are brain, spinal cord, and nerves/ actual nervous tissue is ectodermal in origin and consists of two basic kinds of cells: nerve cells or neurons and neuroglia
Neurons
Nerve cells/ conducting units of system/ all neurons characterized by a cell body called the soma and at least two processes: one axon and one or more dendrites/ most located within organs of central nervous system
Axon
transmits nerve impulses away from cell body
dendrites
carry nerve signals toward axon
Neuroglia
special connecting and supporting cells
Tissue Repair
Usually repair themselves by allowing phagocytic cells to remove dead or injured cells, then filling gaps that are left. (Process called regeneration) epithelial and connective tissues have greatest capacity to regenerate/ muslce tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and thus heal itself/ nerve tissue is also limited to regnerate
body membranes
refers to thin, sheet-like structure that may have important functions in the body/ cover and protects body surface, lines body cavities, covers inner surfaces of hollow organs such as digestive, reproductive, and respiratory passageways/ membranes secrete lubricating fluids that reduce friction during organ movements such as beating of the heart or lung expansion and contraction/ also decrease friction between bones and joints
Two major types of body membranes
Epithelial membranes- composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of specialized connective tissue
Connective tissue membranes- composed exclusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane
Epithelial membranes
Three types: Cutaneous membrane, serous membrane, mucous membrane
Cutaneous membrane
Covers body surfaces exposed to external environment/ skin is primary organ of integumentary system/ one of most important and largest and most visible of body/ composes appx 16% of body's weight/ fulfills requirements necessary for membrane in that it has a superficial layer of epithelial cells and underlying layer of supportive connective tissue
Serous membrane
Lines cavities that are not open to external environment and covers many of organs inside these cavities/ composed of two distinct layers of tissue (Epithelial sheet- thin layer of simple squamous epithelium/ Connective tissue layer- forms a very thin sheet that holds and supports epithelial cells)/ single sheet covering two different surfaces
Parietal membrane
portion that lines wall of cavity like wallpaper
Visceral membrane
covers surface of viscera (organs within the cavity)
Pleura
surrounds a lung and lines thoracic cavity
peritoneum
covers abdominal viscera and lines abdominal cavity
Pericardium
surrounds the heart
Mucous membranes
epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior/ epithelial component of mucous membrane varies, depending on location and function/ get name from fact that they produce a film of mucus that coats and protects underlying cells/ acts as a lubricant for food as it moves along digestive tract/ serves as a sticky trap for contaminants in respiratory tract
Connective tissue membranes
do not contain epithelial components
Synovial membranes
lining spaces between bones and joints that move/ smooth and slick and secrete a thick and colorless lubricating fluid called synovial fluid/ helps reduce friction between opposing surfaces of bones in moveable joints/ also lines small, cushion-like sacs called bursae found between some moving body parts
Neoplasms
literally means "new matter" and refers to abnormal growth of cells/ also called tumors/ can be distinct lumps of abnormal cells or, in blood tissue, can be diffused/ often classified as benign or malignant
Benign tumors
Do not spread to other tissues and usually grow very slowly; cells often well differentiated; cells tend to stay together and often are surrounded by a capsule of dense tissue/ usually not life-threatening but can be if they disrupt normal function of a vital organ.
Malignant tumors
AKA cancers/ not encapsulated and tend to spread to other regions of the body/ cells migrate by way of lymphatic or blood vessels/ process called metatiasis/ may replace part of a vital organ with abnormal, undifferentiated tissue- life-threatening situation
Compact bone
Tissue type composed of Haversian system
Dense fibrous connective tissue
strong tissue that forms tendons and ligaments
dense fibrous connective tissue 2
tissue type that forms strong membranes
cancellous bone
tissue type that forms hard material trabeculae
Cancellous bone 2
tissue type associated with red bone marrow
Fibrocartilage 2
connective tissue that forms the disks between vertebrae
adipose
tissue type that stores lipid molecules
fibrocartilage 3
cartilage type with a great deal of collagen in the matrix
dense fibrous connective tissue 3
tissue type that is actually modified areolar tissue
hyaline cartilage 2
the most common type of cartilage
goblet
identify a cell found in simple columnar and pseudostratified tissue that secretes mucus
exocrine
one of two kinds of glands, it secretes substances onto epithelial surfaces
cilium
a cellular organelle, it is a projection that moves substances along the surface of a cell
transitional
a type of epithelial tissue especially well adapted to exceissve stretching
mucus
mucous membranes secrete this water-based protein solution
keratin
A tough waterproof material found in the upper layers of some examples of stratified squamous epithelium
Cuboidal 2
The type of epithelial tissue likely to be found forming glands
stratified squamous
the type of epithelial tissue likely to be found in the palm of the hand
cardiac and smooth
an involuntary muscle tissue is
smooth
which is most likely to be found in wall of urinary tract
neurons and glia
nerve tissue contains cells called
skeletal
a voluntary type of muscle tissue is
brain
nerve tissue forms the bulk of the
intercalated disks
cardiac muscle fibers are connected end to end by means of
skeletal muscle
which is most likely to have multiple nuclei
skeletal and cardiac
which muscle tissues is striated
true
T or F: fingerprint ridges are formed as a result of the orderly arrangement of dermal papillae
keratinezed stratified squamous
_______ epithelium form the epidermis
there are none present in the epidermis
which of the following answer choices would describe the presence of blood vessels in the epidermis?
spinosum
Stratum basale and stratum ______ together may be called the stratum germinativum
adipose 2
the hypodermis is mainly areolar and _____ tissue
false
When you sense cold air around you, nerve ending in the epidermis are probably involved T or F
True
T or F the type of tissue that is found or that makes up the dermis is dense fibrous connective tissue
false
stratum basale is usually absent in thin skin and stratum lucidum is usually present
deep
the dermis is ____ to the epidermis
true
The dermis is stronger than the epidermis
false
Blood vessels that supply the epidermis are found in the reticular region of the dermis
sebum
Strong shampoo tend to remove ____ from the hair and scalp, making it dry and easily damaged
sebaceous
_____ glands produce sebum
keratin
Waterproofing protein found in the skin is called
basale
Stratum ____ is the epidermal stratum in which one could find many phases of mitosis
dermis
which of the following is thicker?
shaft
When you have your hair cute, the portion of the hair trimmed is called the ___
false
The type of tissue that is found or that makes up the epidermis is stratified cuboidal epithelium
collagen, elastic
The dermis is constructed mainly of _____ fibers, with a few ____ fibers
sebum
_____ prevents moisture loss and helps to condition the hair