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Sociology Chapter 14
Terms in this set (81)
state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
At one time, health was considered to be simply the absence of disease. However, today the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as the __________.
Sociologists use the term __________ for socially defined and culturally variable states of interference with health.
__________ is the term for any activity intended to improve health.
__________ is the term for an institutional system concerned with the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.
__________ is a measure of the estimated average lifetime of people born in a specific year.
Which of these countries has the highest life expectancy?
Infant mortality rate
The __________ is equal to the number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
A safe water supply
An important factor in the increase in life expectancy in low-income nations has been __________.
__________ is the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.
Social epidemiologists use the term __________ for biological, nutritional, chemical, and physical factors that cause disease.
The human host
Social epidemiologists investigate_______________.
Which of these is an example of a chronic disease?
Older people (over age 65) are more likely to have __________ diseases.
Dysentery or diarrhea
Which of these is an example of an acute disease?
tobacco use and alcohol abuse
Two of the most common sources of chronic disease and premature death are __________.
relative number of traffic accidents
Researchers have identified several reasons why neighborhoods make a difference in relation to health and mortality. Which of the following reasons was not cited as a reason why neighborhoods make a difference in relation to health and mortality?
A child born in the United States in 2013 has a life expectancy of __________.
any substance other than food and water that, when taken into the body, alters its function in some way
What is a drug?
When a drug is taken for a specific purpose or remedial affect, this is termed __________ use.
Taking an aspirin to reduce a fever is an example of __________ drug use.
__________ use occurs when a person takes a drug for no purpose other than for achieving a pleasurable feeling or an altered psychological state.
Someone smoking cigarettes is an example of __________ drug use.
Which of these is not a condition that has been attributed to long-term chronic heavy drinking or alcoholism?
high caloric consumption and low nutritional intake
Chronic heavy drinking has been linked to __________.
Which of these is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States?
is especially hazardous for nonsmokers who carpool or work with heavy smokers
Researchers have found that environmental tobacco smoke (the smoke in the air inhaled by nonsmokers as a result of other people's tobacco smoking) __________.
__________ is the most extensively used illegal drug in the United States.
Both ascribed and achieved characteristics are correlated with various health risks. Which of these is an achieved characteristic related to health status?
The most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease, in terms of number of cases, listed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is __________.
can cure most cases of both STDs if the disease has not spread
When attempting to treat gonorrhea and syphilis, penicillin ______
human immunodeficiency virus
AIDS is caused by __________ and is among the most significant health problems that this nation and the world face today.
What is the world's leading infectious killer?
The largest percentage of people with HIV/AIDS live in __________.
obesity will reduce life expectancy by two to five years
Researchers predict that over the next few decades in the United States,________________.
being an apprentice, graduating high school, and attending lectures
During the nineteenth century in the United States, people became medical doctors by_________________.
The __________ is widely considered the catalyst for the emergence of modern medical education
medical colleges should provide the best medical care
All of these were components of Flexner's model medical school except
licensed medical doctors
According to the text, with professionalization, __________ gained control over the entire medical establishment in the United States.
on a fee-for-service basis
Throughout its history in the United States, payment for medical care has been __________.
__________ means that patients are billed separately for each service that they receive, including treatment by doctors, laboratory work, hospital visits, prescriptions, and other health-related expenses.
The United States
Until recently, the only high-income nation without some form of universal health coverage for all citizens was __________.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
After a lengthy political battle, a health care reform bill was signed into law in the United States in 2010. The name of the bill is __________.
affordable insurance through a new insurance marketplace
A central tenet of the 2010 health care reform bill in the United States is __________.
third-party provider program
In a __________, patients pay premiums into a fund that in turn pays doctors and hospitals for each treatment that patient receives
Critics argue that __________ is the main reason for medical inflation because it gives doctors and hospitals an incentive to provide increased medical services.
have no incentive to limit doctor or hospital visits
In regard to a third-party provider system of health care, patients________________.
__________ is a nationwide public health insurance program for persons age 65 or older who are covered by Social Security or who are eligible and "buy into" the program by paying a monthly premium.
__________ is a nationwide public health insurance program that is a jointly funded federal-state-local program established to make health care more available to the poor.
In 2010, public health insurance accounted for __________ of the federal budget.
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
_________ provide, for a set monthly fee, total care with an emphasis on prevention to avoid costly treatment later.
__________ is any system of cost containment that closely monitors and controls health care providers' decisions about medical procedures, diagnostic tests, and other services that should be provided to patients.
A preferred provider organization is a form of __________
In 2012, __________ of all full-time workers in the United States lacked health insurance.
young adults ages 19 to 25
In the United States, the age group with the highest rate of uninsurance in 2012 was __________.
Which of these groups has the highest uninsured rate?
Universal Health Care
Canada has a(n) __________ system, which is a health care system in which all citizens receive medical services paid for by tax revenues. In Canada, these revenues are supplemented by insurance premiums paid by all taxpaying citizens.
__________ refers to a health care system in which the government owns the health care facilities and employs the physicians.
Socialized Medicine System
In Great Britain, the government sets health care policies, raises funds and controls the medical care budget, owns health care facilities, and directly employs physicians and other health care personnel. This is an example of a(n) __________.
a mix of capitalism, communism, and government-funded care
In the China, the health care system is __________.
A __________ is a document stating the person's wishes regarding the medical circumstances under which his or her life should be terminated.
they can be used to generate any specialized cell in the human body
Stem cells are important medically because_____________
__________ is an approach to health care that focuses on prevention of illness and disease and is aimed at treating the whole person—body and mind—rather than just the part or parts in which symptoms occur.
The perspective of __________ emphasizes the importance of health-promoting behavior, a healthy lifestyle, and a healthy self-image.
If all forms of alternative medicine (including chiropractic, massage, and spiritual) are taken into account, people spend __________ money on unconventional therapies than they do for all hospitalizations.
According to the __________ approach, if society is to operate as a stable system, it is important for people to be healthy and to contribute to their society. Consequently, sickness is viewed as a form of deviant behavior that must be controlled by society.
Who identified the sick role as a pattern of interaction in modern society?
People who are sick must wait to get well
The sick role, as identified by Talcott Parsons, suggests that_____________________.
does not take into account racial/ethnic, class, and gender variations
According to some analysts, a major weakness of sociologist Talcott Parson's sick-role model is that it __
The __________ theory emphasizes the political, economic, and social forces that affect health and the health care delivery system.
__________ theorists are most likely to be concerned with unequal access to health care, power relationships in the health care system, and the role of profit in maintaining human health.
According to many __________ theorists, problems in U.S. health care delivery are rooted in the capitalist economy, which views medicine as a commodity that is produced and sold by the medical-industrial complex.
Conflict theorists use the term __________ for the system of local physicians and hospitals as well as global health-related industries such as insurance companies and pharmaceutical and medical supply companies.
From the conflict perspective, which of these groups benefits the least from the current U.S. health care system?
__________ theorists focus on the socially constructed nature of "health" and "illness" and how both should be treated.
The term __________ refers to the process through which nonmedical problems become defined and treated as illnesses or disorders.
There is a subjective component to how some conditions such as childhood obesity, drug addiction, and alcoholism have come to be considered as diseases. This subjective process is called __________.
Homosexuality has been removed from the list of mental disorders compiled by the American Psychiatric Association. This is an example of __________.
Sociologist __________ applied labeling theory to mental health disorders and argued that mental illnesses are actually traits and behaviors that society finds immoral, deviant, or unacceptable.
From primary health care providers
In the United States, adults with mental illness are most likely to receive treatment __________.
From the __________ perspective, disability is viewed as a form of deviance.
the recentness of the impairment
From a labeling perspective, three different factors play a role in how people with disabilities are labeled. Which of these is not one of those three factors?
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