36 terms

Sociology 100B Midterm

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Age of Reason
-18th Century European Enlightment thinkers.

-Rationality or 'Age of Reason'Reason (based on scientific
thought) supplanted religious thinking.

-Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Rousseau

-Change in belief from society being ordained from god, but rather a human construction.
Political Revolutions
-French (1789, 1848)

-American (1776)

-Equality, freedom, democracy
Industrial Revolution
-By end of 18th century shift in means of production from agrarian to industrial and manufacturing

-Growth of Cities - Enclosure movement, factory labor, peasants forced to cities

-Social Problems - inequality, crime, poverty, illness
Positivism
a way of understanding based on science
Structural-Functional
-Views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability

-Social structure refers to any relatively stable patterns of social behaviour found in social institutions

-Social function refers to the consequences for the operation of society as a whole: manifest function is intended; latent function is unintended; and dysfunction is disruptive.

-Ignores inequalities of social class, race and gender, focuses on stability at the expense of conflict
Manifest Function
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Latent Function
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Dysfunction
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Social-Conflict
-Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change

-Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority

-Factors such as ethnicity, race, sex, class, and age are linked to social inequality

-Dominant group vs. minority group relations

i.e. Feminism, Critical Race Theory, Queer Theory

-Some say ignores how shared values and mutual interdependence unify society
If it pursues political goals, it cannot be scientific (good or bad)
Feminist
-Male sociologists have traditionally monopolized the discipline of sociology.

-Feminist theorists have attempted to address the resulting bias by focusing on patriarchy.

-Different types of feminism (e.g., maternal, socialist, radical).

-Different perspectives but generally agree women have been more successful at acquiring rights as opposed to actual equality.
Micro-Sociology/Symbolic Interactionism
-Structural-functional and social-conflict approaches are macro-level: focus on society as a whole.

-SI views society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals: micro-level

-Society is nothing more than the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another

-Society is a complex, ever-changing mosaic of subjective meanings

-Ignores larger social structures, effects of culture, factors such as class, gender, ethnicity, and race
Post-Modernism
-Rejection of positivism prediction and control. Considers emotional and willful aspects of human beings.

-These ideas resurfaced in the 1980s in a movement known as post-modernism.

-Postmodernists reject the idea that humans are rational and that social life is'real

-Postmodernists also reject idea of a single truth. Rather, believe there are many different truths in the world to be explored on issues such as gender, sexuality, and authority.
Culture
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Hegemonic Culture
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Subculture
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Youth Alienation
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Social Structure
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Institutions
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Primary Institutions
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Secondary Institutions
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Status
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Ascribed
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Achieved
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Roles
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Role-Conflict
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Social Stratification
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Meritocracy
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Marxism
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Proletariat
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Bourgeoisie
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Reserved Army of Labour
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Class consciousness
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Oppression Equation
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Privilege
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Relative Poverty
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Absolute Poverty
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