36 terms

Sociology 100B Midterm


Terms in this set (...)

Age of Reason
-18th Century European Enlightment thinkers.

-Rationality or 'Age of Reason'Reason (based on scientific
thought) supplanted religious thinking.

-Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Rousseau

-Change in belief from society being ordained from god, but rather a human construction.
Political Revolutions
-French (1789, 1848)

-American (1776)

-Equality, freedom, democracy
Industrial Revolution
-By end of 18th century shift in means of production from agrarian to industrial and manufacturing

-Growth of Cities - Enclosure movement, factory labor, peasants forced to cities

-Social Problems - inequality, crime, poverty, illness
a way of understanding based on science
-Views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability

-Social structure refers to any relatively stable patterns of social behaviour found in social institutions

-Social function refers to the consequences for the operation of society as a whole: manifest function is intended; latent function is unintended; and dysfunction is disruptive.

-Ignores inequalities of social class, race and gender, focuses on stability at the expense of conflict
Manifest Function
Latent Function
-Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change

-Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority

-Factors such as ethnicity, race, sex, class, and age are linked to social inequality

-Dominant group vs. minority group relations

i.e. Feminism, Critical Race Theory, Queer Theory

-Some say ignores how shared values and mutual interdependence unify society
If it pursues political goals, it cannot be scientific (good or bad)
-Male sociologists have traditionally monopolized the discipline of sociology.

-Feminist theorists have attempted to address the resulting bias by focusing on patriarchy.

-Different types of feminism (e.g., maternal, socialist, radical).

-Different perspectives but generally agree women have been more successful at acquiring rights as opposed to actual equality.
Micro-Sociology/Symbolic Interactionism
-Structural-functional and social-conflict approaches are macro-level: focus on society as a whole.

-SI views society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals: micro-level

-Society is nothing more than the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another

-Society is a complex, ever-changing mosaic of subjective meanings

-Ignores larger social structures, effects of culture, factors such as class, gender, ethnicity, and race
-Rejection of positivism prediction and control. Considers emotional and willful aspects of human beings.

-These ideas resurfaced in the 1980s in a movement known as post-modernism.

-Postmodernists reject the idea that humans are rational and that social life is'real

-Postmodernists also reject idea of a single truth. Rather, believe there are many different truths in the world to be explored on issues such as gender, sexuality, and authority.
Hegemonic Culture
Youth Alienation
Social Structure
Primary Institutions
Secondary Institutions
Social Stratification
Reserved Army of Labour
Class consciousness
Oppression Equation
Relative Poverty
Absolute Poverty