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Key Terms Chapter 7 Conflict and American Independence
Terms in this set (83)
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Hamilton's Financial Plan
1. Pay off national debt by assuming state debt
2. Collect Revenue by imposing tariffs
3. Create a national bank and currency
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Political declarations in favor of states' rights, written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, in opposition the the Alien and Sedition acts. Maintained that states could nullify federal legislation they regarded as unconstitutional
Belief that the government can to anything the constitution does not prohibit
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women
A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Washington's Farewell Address
Published in the papers, he said why he wasn't running again, and to be aware of political parties since they will take down the government, neutrality
Battle of Concord
The British leave Lexington and head to Concord to take the weapons and gunpowder from the colonists. The British were burning the town when the colonists began firing on soldiers, but were driven out by colonists.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Battle of Lexington
Fighting then occurred. The British won the brief fight. "shot heard around the world"
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans, enraged Patriots
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor. Led to the Coercive Acts.
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
A major influence of the Latin American revolutions because of its successful; the only successful slave revolt in history; it is led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
French and Indian/Seven Year's War
War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won, colonists were forced to help pay the war debts
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Chief Little Turtle
Led Native American victories in Northwest region
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
East India Tea Company
Company that the British granted a monopoly on the tea trade in the colonies as well as a portion of new duties to be collected on tea sales
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
A later native group to the eastern woodlands. They blended agriculture and hunting living in common villages constructed from the trees and bark of the forests
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Conservative leader who wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania"; advocated for colonial rights but urged conciliation with England & opposed the Declaration of Independence; helped to write the Articles of Confederation.
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Mercy Otis Warren
Massachusetts colonist who wrote poems and plays supporting the patriot cause
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
Condemned the Sugar Act
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Concord and Lexington
Shot heard around the world, 1st shot of revolutionary war
Each slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person when counting population
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military (defense), and other purposes; the plan was turned down at every colonial assembly and by the Crown.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
US army led by George Washington, made up of colonists
1764 British act forbidding the American colonies to issue paper money as legal tender
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
First Bank of US
Chartered in 1791 and proposed by Alexander Hamilton; created to handle financial needs and requirements of central government to get rid of individual banks, currencies, and financial institutions and policies so country can unify
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies, in exchange America would acknowledge French land claims
A proposal calling for a bicameral legislature with equal representation for the states in the Senate and proportional representation in the House.
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory
Hamilton's big idea; fiercely opposed by Jefferson and Democratic-Rep. The bank would regulate money and draw investors; showed that the constitution could be construed in many a way.
New Jersey Plan
Olive Branch Petition
Pennsylvania Gradual Emancipation Law
1780, prohibited further importation of slaves into the state, required slaveholders to annually register their slaves (with forfeiture for noncompliance, and manumission for the enslaved), and established that all children born in the state were free persons regardless of the condition or race of their parents
Gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and trade at New Orleans
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east (to please Native Americans and to keep control over colonists)
Proclamation of Neutrality
A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France.
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
Treaty of Paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
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