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Chapter 9: Solutions
Terms in this set (27)
A nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition
What is a heterogenous mixture?
A uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout
What is a homogenous mixture?
A homogenous mixture that contains particles the size of a typical ion or small moleucle
What is a solution?
A substance dissolved in a liquid and the component present in the smaller amount in a solution
What is a solute?
The liquid in which another substance is dissolved and the major component present in the solution
What is a solvent?
A homogenous mixture that contains particles in the range of 2-500 diameter
What is Colloid?
The clustering of solvent molecules around a dissolved solute molecule or ion
What is Solvation?
Compounds that have specific number of water molecules attached to them (ex. CuSO4 5H20)
What are hydrates?
Having the ability to pull water molecules from the surrounding atmosphere.
What is hygroscopic?
Often used as drying agents
What are hygroscopic compounds, such as CaCl2, commonly used as?
The maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent or solution at a specified temperature
What is solubility?
A solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute at equilbirium
What is a saturated solution?
A solution that contains less dissolved solute than a saturated solution
What is an unsaturated solution?
A solution that contains more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute; a non equilibrium, unstable situation
What is a supersaturated solution?
A solid that separates from a solution
What is a precipitate?
The amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or solution.
What is concentration?
Pressure has virtually no effect on solubility of a solid or liquid, but it has an effect on solubility of a gas
What effect does pressure have on solubility of solids, liquids, and gases?
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid if the temrpature is constant
What does Henry's law state?
The most useful unit for concentration is morality. Defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved per LITER of solution M = Mol of solute/Lit of solution
What is Molarity?
A property of a solution that depends only on the number of dissolved particles, not on their chemical identity
What is Colligative property?
Vapor pressure is lower for a solution that for a pure solvent
What is 1 example of colligative properties?
Boiling point is higher for a solution than for a pure solvent
What is a 2nd example of colligative property?
Freezing point is lower for a solution than for a pure solvent
What is a 3rd example of colligative property?
Osmosis occurs when a solution is separated from a pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane
What is a 4th example of colligative property?
The passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations
What is osmosis?
The amount of external pressure applied to the more concentrated solution to halt the passage of solvent molecules across a semipermeable membrane
What is osmotic pressure?
The sum of the molarities of all dissolved particles in a solution
What is osmolarity?
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