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יהדות 34-45 Torah Champs

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שישוב החוטא מחטאו לפני ה׳ ויתודה
Confess and regret your עבירות before ה׳ and decide to never go againtst ה׳ again
The 3 steps of תשובה
וידוי-you must say which עבירה you did
חרטה-you must feel sorry for the עבירה you did
קבלה- you must accept upon yourself to never again go against the מצות
חַרָטָה
Regret (feeling bad about doing something wrong)
וִידוּי
saying which עבירה you did wrong
How do you know that the תשובה is real?
If you have the opportunity to do the same עבירה and you do not do it again
If you hurt someone ,is it enough to ask hashem for forgivness?
No! You must also make sure to ask forgiveness from the person you hurt
מצות קריאת שמע שחרית וערבית
Saying שמע in the morning and the evening
What are the three פרשיות of שמע?
שמע- accepting Hashem as king
והיה אם שמוע- accepting the the מצות
ויאמר- the mitzvah of ציצית and remembering יציאת מצרים
When is קריאת שמע said?
ובשכבך-when people are going to sleep (from צאת הכוכבים-when the stars come out until dawn (עלות השחר) it's better to finish by midnight (חצות)
וּבְקוּמֶךָ-ׁwhen people are waking up: just before sunrise until 3 hours into the day
מִצְוַת עַשֵה שֶהַזְמַן גְרָמא
a positive מצוה which has to be done at a certain time. (women don't have to do the מצוה of שמע because it has a set time)
What are ברכוֹת קריאת שמע
in the morning: 2 ברכות before שמע and 1 after
in the evening: 2 ברכות before שמע and 2 after
The Brachot can't be changed.
How should you say שמע?
carefully and with a lot of כּוָנָה (concentration) and without interrupting even with hand motions. (the first Pasuk שמע ישראל ה אלוקינו ה אחד must be said with special כונה)
ׁWhat is the right manner and place to say שמע
-not near garbage or dirty things
-properly dressed (something separating the top of your head and heart from the lower part of your body)
מִצְוַת תְּפִלָה
ask Hashem for all your needs every day
What is the מצוה of תפילה?
talking to Hashem in any way
שמונה עשרה
the 18 Brachot: the main part of תפילה: Ezra Hasofer and the חכמים created it. A 19th Bracha ולמלשינים was added in the times of Rabban Gamliel because of wicked people who were hurting the Jewish people
מצות ברכת כהנים בכל יום
The Kohanim must bless B'nei Yisrael every day.
The Six requirements of Birkat Kohanim
לשון, מום,עבירה,שנים,יין,טומאת ידיים
תפילין של ראש
Wear Teffilen on your head
תפילין של יד
The Teffilen on your arm
The 10 rules of making תפילין
Black ink, kosher animal, perfect square, letter ש must be raised from the leather, the scrolls must be wrapped in parchment, (see photo for more)
When to wear Teffilen
Anytime during the day from משיכיר when you can recognize a friend in the distance until sunset.
Not on Shabbat or Yom Tov because they are an אות a sign, and Shabbat and Yom Tov are signs in themselves.
מצות מזוזה
Attach a Mezuzah on the doorpost of your home
unique rules of מזוזה
1. On one piece of parchment
2. Margins on the top bottom and side
3. in the right order as it appears in the Torah
1. On one piece of patches my
Which door posts need a Mezuzah?
Must be like a door and it must lead to a place like your house (see picture)
מצוה לכתוב כל אחד מישראל ספר תורה לעצמו
Each Jewish man must write a sefer Torah
מצוה על המלך לכתוב ספר תורה אחד יתר על שאר בני ישראל
The king must write a second sefer Torah for himself
How to write your own Sefer Torah?
1. Write or hire a סופר
2. Buy one and fix at least one letter
3. Participate in the writing of a communal Sefer Torah
4. Writing a regular chumash
The king's Sefer Torah
1 Sefer torah like everyone else and a second Sefer Torah for him to have at his side at all times.
מצות ציצית
Add to strings on the corners of a 4 cornered piece of clothing before wearing it and put a Techelet string on it.
The בגד
-A (mans) garment with four corners needs to have Tzitzit. If it'slarger than 1 אמה by 1 אמה
The ציצית-strings
- 4 long strings are folded over through the hole and become 8
-they can be made with wool or of the same material as the clothing they are being attached to.
-the strings must be at least 12 גידולין - thumb widths long.
The חוליות-winding
The Extra long string (שמש) is warped around the other 7 strings. This string is supposed to be תכלת died blue(there are many different customs on how to wrap the strings)
לשמה
Tzitzit have to be made לשמה for the sake of the מצוה
מִצְוַת בִּרְכּת הַמָזוֹן
bless Hashem after eating bread
When do you have to say ברכת המזון?
If you eat:
-bread made of the 5 grains: Wheat, barley, spelt, oats or Rye
When you are full but מדרבנן after eating the size of an olive- you still feel full (72 minutes have not passed)
When are you חייב to say ברכת המזון?
If you eat bread made of:
1. the 5 kinds of grain (wheat, barley, spelt, oats or rye)
2. מן התורה-when you are full
מדרבנן-if you ate at least a כזית (the size of an olive)
What are the 4 ברכות?
הזן-food and life
נודה-Israel
בונה ירושלים-
הטוב והמטיב
what is a זימון?
If 3 or more people are bentching together they
must make a זימון-bentch together.
מצות ברכות
Bless Hashem for everything
The 4 types of Brachot
1. Brachot of pleasure
2. Brachot of praise to Hashem
3. Brachot on Mitzvot
4. Brachot said after eating food
The 3 Brachot before smelling different spices:
נטילת ידיים
Wash your hands before eating a meal and upon getting up in the morning.
2 times when you say נטילת ידיים with a ברכה
1. נטילת ידיים של שחרית
2. נטילת ידיים לסעודה
מצות מילה
The Mitzvah of ברית מילה
What are the rules of Bracha Achrona
מעין שלש ובורא נפשות
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