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Acids and Bases
Chapter 10: Acids and Bases
Terms in this set (33)
Who came up with the first acid base definition?
A substance that gives hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in water.
According to Arrhenius definition, what is an acid?
What does H+ and H20 react to form?
A substance that gives hydroxide ions, OH-, when dissolved in water
According to Arrhenius' definition, what is a base?
Yields water plus a salt
What does a neutralization reaction of an acid and a base yield?
Any donor with an extra lone pair - a substance that donates hydrogen Ion (proton donor)
What is a bronsted acid, and what is another name for it?
Any acceptor that has a lone pair to pick up a proton - a substance that accepts the H+ ion (proton acceptor)
What is a Bronsted base, and what is another name for it?
A synonym for H+ - loss of an electron from H leaving the bare nucleus, a proton
What is "proton" a synonym for?
Classified by how many H+ ions they have - monoprotic, diprotic
How are acids classified?
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) -- Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) -- Hydrochloric acid (HCl) --- Nitric acid (HNO3) --- Acetic acid (CH3CO2H)
What are the five most common acids?
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) --- Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) --- Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) --- Ammonia (NH3)
What are the four common bases?
Bases with OH
What makes a base automatically strong?
It must be either neutral or negatively charged. The base must possess a lone pair of electrons so it can't act as a proton acceptor
What makes a molecule a base?
Two substances whose formula differ by only a Hydrogen ion, H+
What is a conjugate acid-base pair
The substance formed by loss of H+ from an acid
What is the conjugate base?
The substance formed by addition of H+ to a base
What is a conjugate acid?
Neither an acid or a base according to Arrhenius acid base theory since water does not contain appreciable amount of H30+ or OH
According to Arrhenius acid-base theory, is water an acid or a base?
Both an acid and a base
According to Bronsted Lowry acid base theory, is water an acid or a base?
Having the ability to function as an acid or a base
What is amphoteric?
An acid that gives up H+ easily and is essentially 100% dislocated in water
What is a strong acid?
An acid that vies up H+ with difficulty and is less than 100% dissociated in water
What is a weak acid?
A base that has a high affinity for H+ and holds it tightly
What is a strong base?
A base that has only a slight affinity for H+ and holds it weakly
What is a weak base?
The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base. The weaker the acid, the stronger its conjugate base
What is the inverse relationship between acid strength and base strength?
An acid base reaction (or proton transfer equilibrium) always favors reaction of the stronger acid and formation of the weaker acid
What is the general rule for acid base reactions?
Keq = Conj. Acid x Conj. Base / Acid x base
What is the formula for the equilibrium constant for a reaction? (Keq)
The acidity constant/ acid dissociation constant
What is Ka?
The stronger the acid the large the value of Ka. Strong acids have Ka>1, weak acids have Ka <1
How does the strength of an acid relate to Ka?
A procedure for determining the total acid or base concentration of solution.
What is titration?
A measured volume of the acid solution is placed in a flask along with an indicator
What is part A of titration?
Base of known concentration is then added from a buret until the color change of the indicator shows the neutralization is complete
What is part B of titration?
A combination of substances that act together to prevent a drastic change in pH. A buffer is usually made up of a weak acid and its conjugate base
What is a buffer/what makes up a buffer?
The ration of HA to A- should be close to 1 -- the amounts of HA and A- in the buffer should be approximately 10 times greater than either the amount of aid for base you expect to add
Buffers should meet what requirements to be the most effective?
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