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8th Grade Math Vocabulary
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (48)
Adjacent Angles
Angles that share a common vertex, a common side, and do not overlap.
Alternate Exterior Angles
Exterior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal. They are equal in measure.
Alternate Interior Angles
Interior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal. They are equal in measure.
Base
In a power it is the number that is the common factor.
Congruent
Figures with the same shape and size. Rotations, reflections, and translations are create congruent figures.
Rate of Change
Also called the slope of a line. It is the difference of the y values over the difference in the x values.
Corresponding
To match up. For example, side lengths or angle measures that are in matching locations.
Cube Root
The opposite of cubing. It calculates the side lengths of a cube.
Dilation
A transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure by a scale factor.
Distance Formula
Calculates the distance between any two points (x₁, y₁) and (x₂, y₂) on the coordinate plane.
Exponent
In a power, the number of times the base is used as a factor.
Hypotenuse
The side opposite the right angle in a right triangle.
Image
The resulting figure after a transformation.
Irrational Number
A number that cannot be expressed as the quotient a/b, where a and b are integers. This includes imperfect roots; non-terminating, non-repeating decimals; pi
Legs
The two sides of a right triangle that form the right angle.
Linear
An equation whose graph is a straight line. It has a constant rate of change.
Parallel
Lines that never intersect.
Perpendicular Lines
Two lines that intersect to form a right angle.
Pythagorean Theorem
Calculates the missing side lengths of a right triangle. The square of the length of the hypotenuse, c, is equal to the squares of the lengths of the legs a and b.
Rational Number
Numbers that can be written as the ratio of two integers. This includes, integers, mixed fractions, percents, repeating decimals, terminating decimals, and perfect roots.
Real Numbers
The set of all rational and irrational numbers.
Reciprocal
The multiplicative inverse of a number. The product of a number and its reciprocal is 1.
Reflection
A transformation where a figure is flipped over a line called the line of reflection.
Regular Polygon
A polygon with equal side lengths, equal interior angle measures, and equal exterior angle measures.
Right Angle
An angle whose measure is exactly 90°.
Right Triangle
A triangle with one right angle.
Rotation
A transformation in which a figure is turned about a fixed point called the center of rotation.
Scale Factor
The ratio of the lengths of two corresponding sides of two similar polygons.
Similar Figures
Two figures with the same shape, same angle measures, but different size. The side lengths of similar figures are proportional to each other. Dilations create similar figures.
Slope
The rate of change between any two points (x₁, y₁) and (x₂, y₂) on a line. Its the ratio of the rise (the vertical change) over the run (the horizontal change).
Slope-Intercept Form
An equation written in the form y=mx+b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept.
Standard Form
An equation written in the form Ax+By=C
Supplementary Angles
Two angles whose sum is 180°.
Transformation
A movement on a pre-image to a new figure, called the image. Translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations are the types of transformations.
Translation
A transformation that slides a figure from one location to another.
Transversal
A line that crosses over two or more other lines.
Unit Rate
A ratio with a denominator of 1.
Vertical Angles
Angles that are directly opposite each other. They have the same angle measure.
x-axis
The horizontal number line that helps to form the coordinate plane.
x-intercept
the x-coordiante of the point where a line crosses the x-axis.
y-axis
The vertical number line that helps to form the coordinate plane.
y-intercept
The y-coordinate of the point where the line crosses the y-axis.
Integer
Positive and negative whole numbers.
Proportion
The equivalence of two fractions.
Polygon
A many-sided figure.
Rate
A ratio of two quantities with different units.
Interior Angle Sum of a Polygon
Interior Angle Sum of a Triangle
Exactly 180°, no matter the size of the triangle.
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