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Chapter 11: Nuclear chemistry
Terms in this set (39)
Nuclear reactions involve a change in an atoms nucleus, usually producing a different element (change protons). Chemical reactions only involve a change in the distribution of outer shell electrons around an atom and never change the nucleus or produce a new element.
What is the first characteristic of nuclear reactions?
Different isotopes of an element behave similarly in chemical reactions but very differently in nuclear reactions
What is the second characteristic of nuclear reactions?
The rate of a nuclear reaction is unaffected by a change in temperature, pressure, or a catalyst
What is the third characteristic of nuclear reactions?
The nuclear reaction of an atom is essential the same whether it is in a chemical compound or in an uncombined, elemental form
What is the fourth characteristic of nuclear reactions
The energy change accompanying a nuclear reaction can be up to several million times greater than that accompanying a chemical reaction
What is the fifth characteristic of nuclear reactions?
An element with differing numbers of neutrons
What is an isotope?
An isotope that has spontaneous decay on its own
What is a radioactive isotope?
A general term for both protons and nuetrons
What is a nucleon?
The nucleus of a specific isotope of an element
What is a Nuclide?
The spontaneous emission of radiation from a nucleus
What is radioactivity?
A helium nucleus (He2+) emitted as an alpha particle
What is alpha?
An electron emitted from the nucleus as a beta particle
What is Beta?
Radioactivity consisting of high energy light waves
What is gamma?
Charge = +2
Mass = 4 amu
Velocity = Up to 10% of the speed of light (lowest penetrating power)
What is the charge, mass, and velocity of alpha radiation?
Charge = -1
Mass = 1/1823 (0)
Velocity = up to 90% of the speed of light (medium penetrating power)
What is the charge, mass, and velocity of beta radiation?
Charge = 0
Mass = 0 amu
Velocity = Speed of light (3.0 x 10^8 m/s) (highest penetrating power)
What is the charge, mass, and velocity of gamma radiation?
Total nucleon count has to be the same on both sides -- total # of positive charges is the same on both sides
How do you balance a nuclear reaction?
Helium given off as a particle
What is alpha emission?
Neutron in nucleus is becoming unstable and decaying, and turns into a proton and an electron. The electron then is ejected from the nucleus as a beta particle and turns one element to another
What is beta emission?
Typically accompanies alpha or beta emission but can occur on its own
When does gamma emission occur?
The spontaneous emission of a particle from an unstable nucleus
What is nuclear decay?
An electron with a POSITIVE charge
What is a positron?
Has a negative charge
What is an antiproton
When a proton in the nucleus decays, the proton decays into a neutron and a positron. The positron is then ejected (gain neutron lose proton)
What is positron emission?
Nucleus unstable and captures electrons. The electron reacts with a proton to create a neutron
What is electron capture?
Radioactive isotopes are monitored in the body
What are in vivo procedures?
Cancer treatment with Co-60
What is radiation therapy?
CAT scans, PET scans
What are examples of imaging procedures?
Changing one element to another - can be done naturally or and made
What is transmission?
The amount of time it takes for one half of a radioactive sample to decay
What is half life?
Curie (Ci), Roentgen (R), Roentgen equilvalent for Man (REM), radiation absorbed dose (RAD)
What are the four common units for measuring radiation?
Measures the number of radioactive disintegrations per second in a sample
What is Curie?
A unit for measuring the ionizing intensity of Gamma or X-ray radiation
What is Roentgen(R)?
Measures the amount of tissue damage
What is Roentgen equilvane to man? (REM)
A unit for measuring the energy absorbed per gram of material
What is radiation absorbed dose? (RAD)
A reaction that once started is self sustainging
What is a chain reaction?
The minimum amount of radioactive material needed to sustain a nuclear chain reaction
What is critical mass?
A fragmenting of heavy nuclei
What is nuclear fission?
The joining together of light nuclei
What is nuclear fusion?
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