-the legacies of WW2:
1. In the summer of 1945, Europe lay in ruins as the fighting had destroyed cities and landscapes and obliterated buildings, factories, farms, tracks, roads, and bridges.
2. The death toll of WW2 far exceeded those of WW1. In total, about 50 million human beings perished in the conflict.
3. The destruction of the war left tens of millions homeless. The end of the war and the start of the peace increased their numbers.
4. Displaced persons(postwar refugees, including 13 million Germans, former Nazi prisoners and forced laborers, and orphaned children) searched for food and shelter. From 1945 to 1947, the newly established United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration opened over 760 DP camps and spent $10 billion to house, feed, clothe, and repatriate the refugees.
5. When the fighting stopped, Germany and Austria had been divided into four occupation zones -the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France.
-(look at the Yalta Conference)
-While fighting Germany, the Allies could maintain an alliance of necessity. As the war drew to a close, long-standing hostility between East and West re-emerged. Mutual distrust, security concerns, and antagonistic desires for economic, political, and territorial control began to destroy the former partnership.
-Stalin was determined to establish a buffer one of sympathetic states around the USSR and at the same time expand the reach of communism and the Soviet state. Stalin believed that only Communists could be dependable allies, and that free elections would result in independent and possibly hostile governments on his western border. With the Soviet armies in central and eastern Europe, there was no way short of war for the United States to control the region's political future, and war was out of the question. The United States, for its part, pushed to maintain democratic capitalism and open access to free markets in western Europe. The Americans quickly showed that they, too, were willing to use their vast political, economic, and military power to maintain predominance in their sphere of influence.
-aimed at "containing" communism to areas already under Communist governments, a policy first advocated by U.S. diplomat George Kennan in 1946
-The United States, President Truman promised, would use diplomatic, economic, and even military means to resist the expansion of communism anywhere on the globe.
-America's policy geared to containing communism to those countries already under Soviet control
-Truman asked Congress to provide military aid to anticommunist forces in the Greek Civil War and counter the threat of Soviet expansion in Turkey. With American support, both countries remained in the Western bloc.
-The American determination to enforce containment hardened when the Soviets exploded their own atomic bomb in 1949, raising popular fears of a looming nuclear holocaust.
-At home and abroad the United States engaged in an anticommunist crusade. Emotional, moralistic denunciations of Stalin and Communist regimes became part of American public life. By the early 1950s, the US government was restructuring its military to meet the Soviet threat, pouring money into defense spending, and testing nuclear weapons that dwarfed the destructive power of atomic bombs.
-By combining theoretical work with sophisticated engineering in a large bureaucratic organization, Big Science could tackle extremely difficult problems, from new and improved weapons for the military to better products for consumers.
-Big Science was extremely expensive, requiring large-scale financing from governments and large corporations.
-After the war, scientists continued to contribute to advances in military technologies, and a large portion of all postwar scientific research supported the growing arms race.
-Sophisticated science, lavish government spending, and military needs came together in the space race of the 1960s. In 1957, the Soviets used long-range rockets developed in their nuclear weapons program to launch Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit the earth. The US made an all-out commitment to catch up with the Soviets. The US NASA, founded in 1958, won a symbolic victory by landing a manned spacecraft on the moon in 1969. Four more moon landings followed by 1972.
-Big Science had tangible benefits for ordinary people. During the postwar green revolution, directed agricultural research greatly increased the world's food supplies. Farming was industrialized and became more and more productive per acre, resulting in far fewer people being needed to grow food. The application of scientific advances to industrial processes made consumer goods less expensive and more available to larger numbers of people.
-center-right political parties that rose to power in western Europe after WW2
-offered voters tired of radical politics a center-right vision of reconciliation and recovery
-In politics, the Nazi occupation and the war had discredited old ideas and old leaders, so Christian Democrats emerged.
-defeated left-wing competition across much of continental Europe
-In France, the Popular Republican Movement, a Christian Democratic Party, provided some of the best postwar leaders.
-West Germans elected a Christian Democratic government from 1949 to 1969.
-In Italy, the Christian Democrats were the leading party in the first postwar elections in 1946, and in early 1948 they won an absolute majority in the parliament in a landslide victory.
-drew inspiration from a common Christian and European heritage
-rejected authoritarianism and narrow nationalism and placed their faith in democracy and liberalism
-advocated free-market economics and promised voters prosperity and ample supplies of consumer goods
-established education subsidies, family and housing allowances, public transportation, and public health insurance throughout continental Europe
-When necessary, they accepted the need for limited government planning.
-Chinese nationalism developed and triumphed in the framework of Marxist-Leninist ideology.
-After the withdrawal of the occupying Japanese army in 1945, China erupted again in open civil war between the authoritarian Guomindang (Kuomindang, Nation People's Party), led by Jiang Jieshi (traditionally called Chiang Kai-shek; 1887-1975), and the Chinese Communists, led by Mao Zedong and supported by a popular grassroots uprising
-The Soviets gave Mai aid, and the Americans gave Jiang much more. Winning the support of the peasantry by promising to expropriate the tougher, better-organized Communists forced the Guomindang to withdraw to the island of Taiwan in 1949. Mao and the Communists united China's 550 million inhabitants in a strong centralized state. Once in power, the "Red Chinese" began building a new society that adapted Marxism to Chinese conditions
-The new government promoted land reform, extended education and health-care programs to the peasantry, and introduced Soviet-style five-year plans that boosted industrial production. It also brought Stalinist style repression- mass arrests, forced-labor camps, and ceaseless propaganda campaigns - to the Chinese people.