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112 terms

Review and Test

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Function: Nasal Cavity
Lined with mucosa - warms, filters, and moistens air
Function: Pharynx
Respiration and digestive
Function: Larynx
Vocalcords and hooded by epiglottis
Function: Trachea
Ciliated mucosa and cartilage rings
Mechanics of inspiration
Inspiratory muscles contract, intrapulmonary volume increases, its pressure decreases, and air rushes in
Mechanics of expiration
Inspiratory muscles relax, the lungs recoil and air rushes out
Gas Exchange
Oxygen moves from alveolar air into pulmonary blood
Gas Transport
Bound to hemoglobin inside red blood cells and carbon dioxide moves from pulmonary blood into alveolar air
Function: Arteries
Transport blood from the heart
Function: Veins
Transport blood back to the heart
Erythrocytes
Biconcave disk, transport oxygen bound to hemoglobin molecules, red bone marrow
Neutrophil
Fine granules and three to seven loves, active phagocytes (short -term and acute infections)
Eosinophil
Coarse granules and bilobed nucleus, and kill parasitic worms, increase during allergy attacks
Basophil
A few large granules and U or S shaped nucleus, contain histamine and discharged at sites of inflammation
Lymphocytes
Thin rim around nucleus, produces antibodies (B), involved in graft rejection (T), fighting tumors and viruses, and activating B
Monocytes
Kidney shaped nucleus, active phagocytes that become macrophages in the tissues, long term clean up crew, chronic infections
Platelets
Irregularly shaped cell fragments, needed for normal blood clotting
Plasma Contents
Water, nutrients, metal ions, respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, and various wastes and products of cell metabolism
Function: Plasma
Water - solvent for carrying other substances; salts - osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of membrane permeability; plasma - osmotic balance, pH bufferin, clotting of blood, defense and lipid transport
Route of Blood
Body> Venae Cavae> Right atrium> Right ventricle> Pulmonary arteries> Lung> Gas exchange> Pulmonary veins> Left atrium, Left ventricle> Aorta> Body
Heart Beat
Ventricles fill by atrial contraction, isovolumetric contraction of ventricle, then ventricular ejection phase, then isovolumetric relaxation
Movement of Lymph
Right lymphatic ducts drains the lymph from the right arm and right side of the head and thorax, the thoracic duct receives lymph from the rest of the body
Non specific processes
Surface membranes, phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammatory response, complement - fixed on targert, interferon- group of proteins synthesized by virus-infected cells and it prevents virusses from multiplying in other body cells, fever
Specific processes
Antigens, humoral response, cellular response
Humoral responses
Primary immune response - clonal selection of B cells occur when antigens bind to their receptors, other clone membembers become memory B cells and they can do a rapid attack = memory cells, active humoral immunity is acquired during an infection or via vaccination and provides immunological memory
Cellular responses
T cells bind to an antigen and a self protein displayed on the surface of a macrophage, killer t cells directly attack and lyse infected and cancerous cells, helper T cells interact directly with B cells bound to antigens, organ transplants
AIDS
Acquired immunodeficiency disease caused by a virus that attacks and cripples the helper T cells
Prostaglandins
Plasma membrane, locally at site of release, enhance blood clotting and promote fever and promote inflammation and pain and cause fever and vasoconstricter
Insulin
Pancreas, all of the body cells, lower blood sugar
Prolactin
Anterior pituitary, mammary glands, milk production
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex, glucocorticoids
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Anterior Pituitary, gonads, production of ova and sperm
Luteinizing hormone
Anterior Pituitary, gonads, stimulates ovaries and testes
Antidiuretic hormone
Hypothalamus, kidney, holds back water and inhibits urine production
Progesterone
Corpus ludeum, ovaries, promotes growth of uterine lining
Testosterone
Interstitial cells, testes, development of adult male sex characteristics
Androgens
Testes, testes, promote sperm and secondary sex characteristics
T3 and T4, thyroxin
Thyroid gland, thyroid ,stimulates metabolism
Calcitonin
Thyroid gland, blood, decreases blood calcium levels
Parathromone
Parathyroid, blood, regulator of calcium ion homeostasis
Aldosterone
Adrenal Cortex, kidney, promote reabsorption of sodium and potassium of excretion of kidneys
Melatonin
Pineal gland, all cells, regulates sleep ability
Norepinephrine
Catecholamines, increase blood glucose and increase rate of metabolism and constricts certain blood vessels
Thymosin
Thymus, t cells, programs t cells
Estrogen
Ovaries, ovaries, stimulates uterine lining growth and secondary sex characteristics
Semi-Specific
Inflammatory response - heat, pain, swelling, redness
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Some substance that has gotten too high or too low (Temperature - when it goes higher than the set point so receptors notice this and sends a message to the hypothalamus then it will send a message to the blood vessels and they expand to evaporate heat and sweat and that causes your temperature to lower and go back to the set point)
Positive feedback Mechanisms
Birth - Hypothalamus makes oxytocin (stored in the posterior pituitary), and sends it to the uterine muscles and it tells them to contract, when they contract they produce a chemical signal that goes to the hypothalamus and tells it to make more oxytocin and so it makes more, this cycle keeps going until the baby and the placenta is expelled and when the uterus is back to its original size; also is the same with breast feeding and prolactin
Negative Feedback and homeostasis
Body is trying to reach a balance
Chemotaxis
The process by which WBS and phagocytes are drawn to an area of inflammation
Nitrogen wastes - Source
Amino acids
Lymphokines
Any kind of a signal made by lmphocytes (how helper T cells call others to the site)
Nitrogen wastes - Types
Ammonia - poisonous and water animal, urea - land animals, uric acid - least soluble, least poisonous, solid, birds and reptiles, and settling in the joints is gout
The brain and spinal cord comprise the _______ nervous system
Efferent
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the _________ nervous system
Somatic
The part of the peripheral nervous system which brings information to the central nervous system is
Afferent
Function: Neuroglia
Support, secretion of cerebrospinal fluid, isolation of neurons, phagocytosis
Neuroglial cells found in the central nervous system
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the
Astrocytes
Function: Astrocytes
Maintaining the blood-brain barier, guiding neuron development, performing repairs in damaged neural tissue, creating a three-dimensional framework for the CNS
The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by
Oligodendrocytes
The type of glial cell that is found lining the ventricles and spinal canal are the
Ependymal cells
Small phagocytic cells that are especially obvious in damaged tissue in the CNS are the
Microglia
The myelin of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by
Schwann cells
Neurotransmitters are released from the
Axonal terminal
The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the
Synapse
Association neurons are found in the
Brain and spinal cord
The structure that connects the two hemispheres of the brain is the
Corpus collosum
What is filled with cerebral spinal fluid
Subarachnoid space
The steps of a reflex arc
Arrival of a stimulus and activation of a receptor, activation of a sensory neuron, information processing, activation of a motor neuron, and response by an effector
The outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
Dura mater
The subdural space
Seperates the dura mater from the arachnoid mater
The layer of the meninges that is tightly bound to the surface of the neural tissue is the
Pia mater
Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the
Medulla oblongata
The visual cortex is located in the
Occipital lobe
The region of the brain that is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function as well as processing somatic sensory and motor information is the
Cerebrum
A neuron whose primary function is connecting other neurons is called a
Association neuron
Immediately after an action potential is propagated, what ion diffuses out of the cell
Potassium
The three major parts of the brain stem are the
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
What does broca's area control
Motor control of speech muscles
What does the medulla oblongata control
Control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure
Layers of the meninges (outer to inner)
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Cells that are found in the CNS and cling to neurons, anchoring them to blood vessels are called
Astrocytes
What are collectively constituted as the diencephalon
The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
What is interpreted in the parietal lobe
Touch
Function: Ureters
Carrying urine from the kidneys
Function: Glomerulus
Fluid goes through the capillary walls
Function: Proximal Tubule
Reabsorb glucose, vitamins, and amino acids
Function: Ascending Loop
Moves chloride and sodium out
Function: Descending Loop
Makes concentrated filtrate
Function: Bowman's Capsule
Receives filtrates and sends it to the rest of the nephron
Function: Distal Tubule
Remove water from renal filtrates and aldosterone controlled sodium reabsorption
Function: Interstitial Fluid
Final control of water levels in the nephron through highly concentrated salt and urea levels
Function: Collecting Duct
Urine is dripped into the open space of the kidney
Function: Male reproductive system
Produce sperm and transfer to females
Function: Female reproductive system
Make gametes, provide the right environment for fetus and embryo to grow for 9 months, and produce milk after child is born
Spermatogenesis
Sperm production, begins at puberty in seminiferous tubules in response to follicle-stimulating hormone; Testosterone production begins in puberty in response to leutinizing hormone, produced by interstitial cells of the testes
Oogenesis
Production of female sex cells, occurs in ovarian follicles, whcih are activated at puberty by FSH and LH to mature and eject oocytes (ovulation)
Hormones of the female reproductive system
Estrogens are produced by ovarian follicles in response to FSH, progesterone is produced in response to LH and is the main hormonal product of the corpus luteum
Menstrual Cycle
Menses: Endometrium sloughs off and ovarian hormones are at their lowest level, Proliferative phase: Endometrium is repaired, thickens, and becomes well vascularized in response to increasing levels of estrogens, Secretory phase: Endometrial glands begin to secrete nutrients, and linin becomes more vascular in response to increasing levels of progesterone
Production of oocyte
Corpus luteum> degenerating corpus luteum> primary follicle> growing follicles> corona radiata and mature vesicular follicle> ruptured follicle and ovulation and oocyte
Leukemia
The bone marrow becomes cancerous and huge numbers of WBS are turned out
Phases of Hemostasis
Platelet plug forms, vascular spasms occur and releases serotonin which causes the blood vessel to go into spasms, coagulation occurs and tissues are releasing thromboplastin and PF3 interacts and forms an activator that triggers the clotting cascade and the prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin (enzyme) and thrombin joins fibrinogen proteins to form fribrin and forms a meshwork that traps RBC's and then the clot squeezes out serum (plasma minus clotting proteins) while pulling the ruptured edges together
T cell activation and interactions with other cells of the immune response
Macrophages ingest an antigen, then display parts of it on their surface membranes, where it can be recognized by a helper T cells that bears receptors for the same antigen, during the binding process, the T cell binds simultaneously to the antigen and to the macrophage receptor, which leads to T cell activation and cloning, then the helper T cells release lymphokine, which stimulate proliferation and activity of other helper T cells and help activate killer T cells and B cellls
Cell-mediated Immunity
Killer T cells, attack on infected cells
Humoral Immunity
B cells, secretion of antibodies by plasma cells
Acquired Immunity
Naturally acquired: active - infection or contact with pathogen, passive - antibodies pass from mother to fetus by placentoa or in her milk; Artificially acquired: active - vaccine or dead or attenuated pathogens, passive - injection of immune serum
Lymph Transport
Aided by the muscular and respiratory pumps and by contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the lymphatic vessels
The type of lymphatic vessel that brings lymph to the lymph nodes is said to be an ______ lymphatic vessel
Afferent
Lymph flows
Towards the heart
Endocrine v. Exocrine glands
Endocrine glands are ductless glands that empty directly into the blood, while exocrine glands are glands that have ducts and their secretions are carried to a particular site
Function: Kidneys
Disposing of wastes and excess ions also by producing renin they help regulate blood pressure and the hormone erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow