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Function: Nasal Cavity

Lined with mucosa - warms, filters, and moistens air

Function: Pharynx

Respiration and digestive

Function: Larynx

Vocalcords and hooded by epiglottis

Function: Trachea

Ciliated mucosa and cartilage rings

Mechanics of inspiration

Inspiratory muscles contract, intrapulmonary volume increases, its pressure decreases, and air rushes in

Mechanics of expiration

Inspiratory muscles relax, the lungs recoil and air rushes out

Gas Exchange

Oxygen moves from alveolar air into pulmonary blood

Gas Transport

Bound to hemoglobin inside red blood cells and carbon dioxide moves from pulmonary blood into alveolar air

Function: Arteries

Transport blood from the heart

Function: Veins

Transport blood back to the heart


Biconcave disk, transport oxygen bound to hemoglobin molecules, red bone marrow


Fine granules and three to seven loves, active phagocytes (short -term and acute infections)


Coarse granules and bilobed nucleus, and kill parasitic worms, increase during allergy attacks


A few large granules and U or S shaped nucleus, contain histamine and discharged at sites of inflammation


Thin rim around nucleus, produces antibodies (B), involved in graft rejection (T), fighting tumors and viruses, and activating B


Kidney shaped nucleus, active phagocytes that become macrophages in the tissues, long term clean up crew, chronic infections


Irregularly shaped cell fragments, needed for normal blood clotting

Plasma Contents

Water, nutrients, metal ions, respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, and various wastes and products of cell metabolism

Function: Plasma

Water - solvent for carrying other substances; salts - osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of membrane permeability; plasma - osmotic balance, pH bufferin, clotting of blood, defense and lipid transport

Route of Blood

Body> Venae Cavae> Right atrium> Right ventricle> Pulmonary arteries> Lung> Gas exchange> Pulmonary veins> Left atrium, Left ventricle> Aorta> Body

Heart Beat

Ventricles fill by atrial contraction, isovolumetric contraction of ventricle, then ventricular ejection phase, then isovolumetric relaxation

Movement of Lymph

Right lymphatic ducts drains the lymph from the right arm and right side of the head and thorax, the thoracic duct receives lymph from the rest of the body

Non specific processes

Surface membranes, phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammatory response, complement - fixed on targert, interferon- group of proteins synthesized by virus-infected cells and it prevents virusses from multiplying in other body cells, fever

Specific processes

Antigens, humoral response, cellular response

Humoral responses

Primary immune response - clonal selection of B cells occur when antigens bind to their receptors, other clone membembers become memory B cells and they can do a rapid attack = memory cells, active humoral immunity is acquired during an infection or via vaccination and provides immunological memory

Cellular responses

T cells bind to an antigen and a self protein displayed on the surface of a macrophage, killer t cells directly attack and lyse infected and cancerous cells, helper T cells interact directly with B cells bound to antigens, organ transplants


Acquired immunodeficiency disease caused by a virus that attacks and cripples the helper T cells


Plasma membrane, locally at site of release, enhance blood clotting and promote fever and promote inflammation and pain and cause fever and vasoconstricter


Pancreas, all of the body cells, lower blood sugar


Anterior pituitary, mammary glands, milk production

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex, glucocorticoids

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Anterior Pituitary, gonads, production of ova and sperm

Luteinizing hormone

Anterior Pituitary, gonads, stimulates ovaries and testes

Antidiuretic hormone

Hypothalamus, kidney, holds back water and inhibits urine production


Corpus ludeum, ovaries, promotes growth of uterine lining


Interstitial cells, testes, development of adult male sex characteristics


Testes, testes, promote sperm and secondary sex characteristics

T3 and T4, thyroxin

Thyroid gland, thyroid ,stimulates metabolism


Thyroid gland, blood, decreases blood calcium levels


Parathyroid, blood, regulator of calcium ion homeostasis


Adrenal Cortex, kidney, promote reabsorption of sodium and potassium of excretion of kidneys


Pineal gland, all cells, regulates sleep ability


Catecholamines, increase blood glucose and increase rate of metabolism and constricts certain blood vessels


Thymus, t cells, programs t cells


Ovaries, ovaries, stimulates uterine lining growth and secondary sex characteristics


Inflammatory response - heat, pain, swelling, redness

Negative Feedback Mechanisms

Some substance that has gotten too high or too low (Temperature - when it goes higher than the set point so receptors notice this and sends a message to the hypothalamus then it will send a message to the blood vessels and they expand to evaporate heat and sweat and that causes your temperature to lower and go back to the set point)

Positive feedback Mechanisms

Birth - Hypothalamus makes oxytocin (stored in the posterior pituitary), and sends it to the uterine muscles and it tells them to contract, when they contract they produce a chemical signal that goes to the hypothalamus and tells it to make more oxytocin and so it makes more, this cycle keeps going until the baby and the placenta is expelled and when the uterus is back to its original size; also is the same with breast feeding and prolactin

Negative Feedback and homeostasis

Body is trying to reach a balance


The process by which WBS and phagocytes are drawn to an area of inflammation

Nitrogen wastes - Source

Amino acids


Any kind of a signal made by lmphocytes (how helper T cells call others to the site)

Nitrogen wastes - Types

Ammonia - poisonous and water animal, urea - land animals, uric acid - least soluble, least poisonous, solid, birds and reptiles, and settling in the joints is gout

The brain and spinal cord comprise the _______ nervous system


Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the _________ nervous system


The part of the peripheral nervous system which brings information to the central nervous system is


Function: Neuroglia

Support, secretion of cerebrospinal fluid, isolation of neurons, phagocytosis

Neuroglial cells found in the central nervous system

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells

The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the


Function: Astrocytes

Maintaining the blood-brain barier, guiding neuron development, performing repairs in damaged neural tissue, creating a three-dimensional framework for the CNS

The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by


The type of glial cell that is found lining the ventricles and spinal canal are the

Ependymal cells

Small phagocytic cells that are especially obvious in damaged tissue in the CNS are the


The myelin of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by

Schwann cells

Neurotransmitters are released from the

Axonal terminal

The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the


Association neurons are found in the

Brain and spinal cord

The structure that connects the two hemispheres of the brain is the

Corpus collosum

What is filled with cerebral spinal fluid

Subarachnoid space

The steps of a reflex arc

Arrival of a stimulus and activation of a receptor, activation of a sensory neuron, information processing, activation of a motor neuron, and response by an effector

The outermost covering of the spinal cord is the

Dura mater

The subdural space

Seperates the dura mater from the arachnoid mater

The layer of the meninges that is tightly bound to the surface of the neural tissue is the

Pia mater

Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the

Medulla oblongata

The visual cortex is located in the

Occipital lobe

The region of the brain that is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function as well as processing somatic sensory and motor information is the


A neuron whose primary function is connecting other neurons is called a

Association neuron

Immediately after an action potential is propagated, what ion diffuses out of the cell


The three major parts of the brain stem are the

Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

What does broca's area control

Motor control of speech muscles

What does the medulla oblongata control

Control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure

Layers of the meninges (outer to inner)

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Cells that are found in the CNS and cling to neurons, anchoring them to blood vessels are called


What are collectively constituted as the diencephalon

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus

What is interpreted in the parietal lobe


Function: Ureters

Carrying urine from the kidneys

Function: Glomerulus

Fluid goes through the capillary walls

Function: Proximal Tubule

Reabsorb glucose, vitamins, and amino acids

Function: Ascending Loop

Moves chloride and sodium out

Function: Descending Loop

Makes concentrated filtrate

Function: Bowman's Capsule

Receives filtrates and sends it to the rest of the nephron

Function: Distal Tubule

Remove water from renal filtrates and aldosterone controlled sodium reabsorption

Function: Interstitial Fluid

Final control of water levels in the nephron through highly concentrated salt and urea levels

Function: Collecting Duct

Urine is dripped into the open space of the kidney

Function: Male reproductive system

Produce sperm and transfer to females

Function: Female reproductive system

Make gametes, provide the right environment for fetus and embryo to grow for 9 months, and produce milk after child is born


Sperm production, begins at puberty in seminiferous tubules in response to follicle-stimulating hormone; Testosterone production begins in puberty in response to leutinizing hormone, produced by interstitial cells of the testes


Production of female sex cells, occurs in ovarian follicles, whcih are activated at puberty by FSH and LH to mature and eject oocytes (ovulation)

Hormones of the female reproductive system

Estrogens are produced by ovarian follicles in response to FSH, progesterone is produced in response to LH and is the main hormonal product of the corpus luteum

Menstrual Cycle

Menses: Endometrium sloughs off and ovarian hormones are at their lowest level, Proliferative phase: Endometrium is repaired, thickens, and becomes well vascularized in response to increasing levels of estrogens, Secretory phase: Endometrial glands begin to secrete nutrients, and linin becomes more vascular in response to increasing levels of progesterone

Production of oocyte

Corpus luteum> degenerating corpus luteum> primary follicle> growing follicles> corona radiata and mature vesicular follicle> ruptured follicle and ovulation and oocyte


The bone marrow becomes cancerous and huge numbers of WBS are turned out

Phases of Hemostasis

Platelet plug forms, vascular spasms occur and releases serotonin which causes the blood vessel to go into spasms, coagulation occurs and tissues are releasing thromboplastin and PF3 interacts and forms an activator that triggers the clotting cascade and the prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin (enzyme) and thrombin joins fibrinogen proteins to form fribrin and forms a meshwork that traps RBC's and then the clot squeezes out serum (plasma minus clotting proteins) while pulling the ruptured edges together

T cell activation and interactions with other cells of the immune response

Macrophages ingest an antigen, then display parts of it on their surface membranes, where it can be recognized by a helper T cells that bears receptors for the same antigen, during the binding process, the T cell binds simultaneously to the antigen and to the macrophage receptor, which leads to T cell activation and cloning, then the helper T cells release lymphokine, which stimulate proliferation and activity of other helper T cells and help activate killer T cells and B cellls

Cell-mediated Immunity

Killer T cells, attack on infected cells

Humoral Immunity

B cells, secretion of antibodies by plasma cells

Acquired Immunity

Naturally acquired: active - infection or contact with pathogen, passive - antibodies pass from mother to fetus by placentoa or in her milk; Artificially acquired: active - vaccine or dead or attenuated pathogens, passive - injection of immune serum

Lymph Transport

Aided by the muscular and respiratory pumps and by contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the lymphatic vessels

The type of lymphatic vessel that brings lymph to the lymph nodes is said to be an ______ lymphatic vessel


Lymph flows

Towards the heart

Endocrine v. Exocrine glands

Endocrine glands are ductless glands that empty directly into the blood, while exocrine glands are glands that have ducts and their secretions are carried to a particular site

Function: Kidneys

Disposing of wastes and excess ions also by producing renin they help regulate blood pressure and the hormone erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow

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