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Biology - Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life Go Vikings!!


anything that takes up space (has volume) and has mass


smallest particle of matter that has the properties of that particular kind of matter


Neutral part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom


Postive part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom


Negative part of atom; no mass value; found orbiting nucleus of atom

Atomic number

# of protons

Atomic mass

# protons + # of neutrons


Charged atom; has unequal number of protons and electrons


substances made up of only 1 type of atom


smallest part of a compound that can exists and still have the properties of that compound


Substances that contain 2 or more different elements chemically joined together

Chemical symbol

Letter or letters used to represent each element; 1st letter is always CAPITALIZED and 2nd is always lower cased

Chemical formula

symbols and numbers used to show the numbers and types of atoms in a compound or molecule

Chemical equation

Used to show a chemical reaction when 2 or more elements or compounds react to form new substances

Physical change

A change in size, shape or form that does NOT change the properties of the substance

Chemical change

A change in matter in which a new substance is formed with unique properties

Inorganic compounds

have no carbon; found mostly in non-living things

Organic compounds

Have carbon in chains or rings; makeup living things


Main source of "quick" energy; composed of C,H,O; 2 main groups - sugars and starches


Source of stored energy - releases more energy / molecule than carbs.; Made up of C,H,O


molecules that make up cell membrane; "head" region is attracted to water while "tail" region is not


Made up of amino acids (CHON) provide all structure and function of cells and organisms


special types of proteins that regulate chemical reactions without being used up

Nucleic Acid

Store all genetic information needed for a cell to make proteins; DNA & RNA

van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules


attraction between molecules of the same substance


an attraction between molecules of different substances

pH scale

A scale that indicates the acidity of a solution; it is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions.


compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution


compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution


weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH


building block or small unit of a polymer; can be linked into chains


a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

amino acid

monomers (building blocks) of protein molecules

chemical reaction

The making and breaking of chemical bonds, resulting in the creation of new substances.


the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction


a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

activation energy

minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction


a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction


A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction


a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction


protein that acts as a biological catalyst

active site

the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate


an important factor in enzyme activity

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