How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

44 terms

Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life

Biology - Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life Go Vikings!!
anything that takes up space (has volume) and has mass
smallest particle of matter that has the properties of that particular kind of matter
Neutral part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom
Postive part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom
Negative part of atom; no mass value; found orbiting nucleus of atom
Atomic number
# of protons
Atomic mass
# protons + # of neutrons
Charged atom; has unequal number of protons and electrons
substances made up of only 1 type of atom
smallest part of a compound that can exists and still have the properties of that compound
Substances that contain 2 or more different elements chemically joined together
Chemical symbol
Letter or letters used to represent each element; 1st letter is always CAPITALIZED and 2nd is always lower cased
Chemical formula
symbols and numbers used to show the numbers and types of atoms in a compound or molecule
Chemical equation
Used to show a chemical reaction when 2 or more elements or compounds react to form new substances
Physical change
A change in size, shape or form that does NOT change the properties of the substance
Chemical change
A change in matter in which a new substance is formed with unique properties
Inorganic compounds
have no carbon; found mostly in non-living things
Organic compounds
Have carbon in chains or rings; makeup living things
Main source of "quick" energy; composed of C,H,O; 2 main groups - sugars and starches
Source of stored energy - releases more energy / molecule than carbs.; Made up of C,H,O
molecules that make up cell membrane; "head" region is attracted to water while "tail" region is not
Made up of amino acids (CHON) provide all structure and function of cells and organisms
special types of proteins that regulate chemical reactions without being used up
Nucleic Acid
Store all genetic information needed for a cell to make proteins; DNA & RNA
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
attraction between molecules of the same substance
an attraction between molecules of different substances
pH scale
A scale that indicates the acidity of a solution; it is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions.
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
building block or small unit of a polymer; can be linked into chains
a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
amino acid
monomers (building blocks) of protein molecules
chemical reaction
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, resulting in the creation of new substances.
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
activation energy
minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction
a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
active site
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
an important factor in enzyme activity