How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

44 terms

Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life

Biology - Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life Go Vikings!!
STUDY
PLAY
Matter
anything that takes up space (has volume) and has mass
Atom
smallest particle of matter that has the properties of that particular kind of matter
Neutron
Neutral part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom
Proton
Postive part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom
Electron
Negative part of atom; no mass value; found orbiting nucleus of atom
Atomic number
# of protons
Atomic mass
# protons + # of neutrons
Ion
Charged atom; has unequal number of protons and electrons
Element
substances made up of only 1 type of atom
Molecule
smallest part of a compound that can exists and still have the properties of that compound
Compound
Substances that contain 2 or more different elements chemically joined together
Chemical symbol
Letter or letters used to represent each element; 1st letter is always CAPITALIZED and 2nd is always lower cased
Chemical formula
symbols and numbers used to show the numbers and types of atoms in a compound or molecule
Chemical equation
Used to show a chemical reaction when 2 or more elements or compounds react to form new substances
Physical change
A change in size, shape or form that does NOT change the properties of the substance
Chemical change
A change in matter in which a new substance is formed with unique properties
Inorganic compounds
have no carbon; found mostly in non-living things
Organic compounds
Have carbon in chains or rings; makeup living things
Carbohydrates
Main source of "quick" energy; composed of C,H,O; 2 main groups - sugars and starches
Lipids
Source of stored energy - releases more energy / molecule than carbs.; Made up of C,H,O
Phospholipids
molecules that make up cell membrane; "head" region is attracted to water while "tail" region is not
Proteins
Made up of amino acids (CHON) provide all structure and function of cells and organisms
Enzymes
special types of proteins that regulate chemical reactions without being used up
Nucleic Acid
Store all genetic information needed for a cell to make proteins; DNA & RNA
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
an attraction between molecules of different substances
pH scale
A scale that indicates the acidity of a solution; it is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions.
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
base
compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution
buffer
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
monomer
building block or small unit of a polymer; can be linked into chains
polymer
a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
amino acid
monomers (building blocks) of protein molecules
chemical reaction
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, resulting in the creation of new substances.
reactant
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
activation energy
minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction
substrate
a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
enzyme
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
active site
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
temperature
an important factor in enzyme activity