HST 180-Final

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A Greek city-state
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Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and orderMa'atSacred writing of EgyptHieroglyphsHis epic poem the Iliad, recounts the prowess and anger of AchillesHomerGreek term for a ruler who used force rather than hereditary right or constitutional means to seize powerTyrantThe purpose of Solon's reform was to: a. ensure that only men of aristocratic birth would control Athens b. return Athens to a Mycenaean-style monarchy c. open up participation in government to the newly wealthy d. establish himself securely as a tyrantC.According to Thucydides, the Peloponnesian War was caused by: a. Athens's attack on Sparta to free the Helots b. Persia's desire to conquer the Peloponnesus for its rich mines c. Sparta's fear of Athen's growing power d. Sparta's attempt to stop Athens from imposing monarchy on all Greek statesC.During the Persian Wars: a. Athens defeated Sparta b. Xerxes of Persia conquered Greece, ending Athenian democracy c. Athens and Sparta invaded Persia and destroyed the Persian Empire d. None of the these answers is correctD.Sparta developed a strict military state and society in order toL a. Keep their conquered people, or "helots", in subjugation and slavery b. train their artists to create simple but powerful images c. compete victoriously in the Olympic Games d. dominate the trade and commerce of the entire Greek worldA.Sumerian religion: a. was monotheistic b. proclaimed a joyous afterlife c. is notable for how pessimistic it was d. is notable for how optimistic it wasC.In addition to preaching monotheism, the Jewish prophets also: a. declared that the essence of faith was making the proper sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem b. preached that religion was not merely ritual, but also ethical behavior c. argued that all Jews should abandon Jerusalem for Babylon d. announced that God was indifferent to human behaviorB.The great pyramids of Egypt were: a. monument to the Sumerian gods b. mostly composed of dried clay bricks c. important to the Egyptian belief in the afterlife d. built toward the end of Egyptian historyC.Athenian democracy differed from modern democracy in many ways, with several groups excluded. Which of the following were not excluded? a. women b. slaves c. metics, or resident foreigners d. poor peopleD.The Greek gods: a. resembled human being b. shared the same virtues and defects as mankind c. periodically interfered in human affairs d. all these answers are correctD.Among the Hebrew beliefs that have had an important impact on Western civilization: a. the creation of the world at a specific time b. the concept of ethical monotheism c. that history was a purposeful, morally significant event d. all these are correctD.The success of the Assyrian empire was based on: a. the use of iron weaponry and systematic brutality b. skilled administration and the spread of the Aramaic language c. skilled military engineers and a trained officer corps d. all these answers are correctD.Minoan civilization: a.was centered in mesopotamia b. had artists who often painted frescoes featuring religious rituals c. was destroyed by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt d. produced, as its greatest military leader, Alexander the GreatB.Mycenacean civilization was: a. not self-sufficient and had to trade for many valuable commodities b. depicted many years later in the Homeric epics c. an ancestor of later Greek civilization d. all these answers are correctD.Respectable Athenian women: a. traveled widely in the Greek world b. tended to stay within the home, presiding over spinning and weaving c. undertook regular gymnastic exercises d. regularly took part in civic affairsB.T or F: When Alexander was an old man, he wrote in his memoirs that he wanted to combine Greeks and Asians into a new, universal race.FalseT or F: Greek immigrants to Asia and Egypt were relegated to the same low social and economic status as the native inhabitants.FalseT or F: The use of elephants made Hellenistic armies invincible.FlaseT or F: Hellenistic artists and architects had to depend on the uncertain support of democratic governments to carry out their projects.FalseT or F: Archimedes, though a superb mathematician, invented no practical devices.FalseT or F: Of all the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the only one still standing-Babylon's Hanging GardensTrueT or F: The Biblical character Joseph, sold into slavery by his brothers, eventually came to work for Egypt's pharaoh, holding the position of "vizier" (deputy).TrueT or F: In "The Epic of Gilgamesh", Gilgamesh triumphs over deathFalseT or F: Hammurabi's law code included punishments of the "eye for an eye" type.TrueT or F: Akhenaten was the last powerful pharaoh of Egypt.FalseT or F: The Hebrews invented the sound-based alphabet.FalseT or F: The Assyrians used skilled administrators as well as terror to maintain their empire.TrueT or F: Unlike the rivers of Mesopotamia, the Nile River provides a constant flow of water, which proved vital to the survival and longevity of Ancient Egyptian culture-and was the object of worship.TrueT or F: The Greeks were fortunate in having a large plain and river so that they could be united in one great empire.FalseT or F: Mycenaean civilization was greatly influenced by the MinoansTrueT or F: Athens converted the Delian League into an empire by forbidding the members to withdraw and by controlling the League treasury.TrueT or F: Unlike Plato, Aristotle believed in the study of the everyday world, not in the study of ideal forms.TrueT or F: Hippocrates believed that all diseases had natural causes.TrueT or F: One reason, cited by Mark Noll, as to why "Turning Points" is needed: Reasserting the Historical character of the Christian faith-more than just worship, it places faith in historical context.TrueT or F: Philip of Macedonia had no desire to conquer the Persian Empire.FalseAlexander's legacy includes: a. the blending of greek and Asian cultures b. the idea of a single great empire of many peoples ruled by one king c. his political conquests, although in some regions these did not last long d. all these are correctD.Which of the following was not true of the increasingly diverse Hellenistic world? a. the ruling class though Greek in language and culture, was open to non-Greeks who acquired Greek culture and language b. there was a growing Chinese influence, especially in the Antigonid kingdom of Macedonia c. women could travel more freely and participate in the arts d. Africans were more often represented in the visual artsB.During the Hellenistic period, women: a. were increasingly sequestered from cultural, political, and economic life b. were granted political and voting rights in the most kingdoms c. were allowed freer access to economic and cultural professions d. gained the right to pass down their names and heritage to their childrenC.The Maccabees led a Jewish revolt against King Antiochus IV because he: a. wanted to move all Jews to Egypt to establish a Jewish state there b. converted to Judaism and insisted on being appointed high priest c. forbade the Jews from trading with Minoans d. tried to Hellenize the Jews, and violated the Temple with an altar to ZeusD.According to Mark Noll, the study of church history is especially important for this reason: a. proving that Christian faith is one of many paths to heaven b. affirming that the faith of the church is more important than its particular governing system c. increasing our humility and gratitude to earlier believers, despite the record of our imperfections d. confirming the Protestant message of Luther, rejecting CalvinC.Genesis 1 and 2 record the account of: a. creation b. the flood c. the plagues d. Moses receiving the lawA.The chief rivers of ancient Mesopotamia: a. the Nile and the Tigris b. the Tigris and the Euphrates c. the Nile and the Indus d. the Euphrates and the GangesB.According to Mark Noll, studying the history of Christianity has value, because it provides: a. perspective on the interpretation of Scripture b. a laboratory for examining Christian interactions with surrounding cultures c. opportunity in shaping proper attitudes, distinguishing between essential and less important matters d. all of the aboveD.The powerful female leader of Egypt who had herself represented as a man in statues: a. Hatshepsut b. Thutmose c. Nefertiti d. AmenhotepA.The New Kingdom pharaoh Akhenaten: a. was the last pharaoh of Egypt b. overthrew his stepmother, Hatshepsut c. conquered Israel d. introduced new ideas in art and religionD.According to the Bible, a major weakness of King Solomon stemmed from a. his practice of polygamy b. his lack of military skills c. how he oppressed his own people d. his love of richesA.Along with preaching monotheism, Jewish prophet: a. declared the essence of faith to be making the proper sacrifices at the Temple b. preached that religion was not merely ritual, but also ethical behavior c. argued that all Jews should abandon Jerusalem for Babylon d. announced that God was indifferent to our behaviorB.The success of the Assyrian empire was based on: a. the use of systematic brutality to subdue its enemies b. skilled administration and the spread of the Aramaic language c. skilled military engineers and a trained officer corps d. all of these are correctD.Zoroaster's religious beliefs had a similarity to Jewish ideas in all of the following areas except the: a. need to live an ethical life b. need to observe strict dietary laws c. ultimate prevalence of the forces of good over the forces of evil d. revelation of the will of God to manB.As recorded in Daniel 2, an Ancient World ruler had a dream which, with God's help was interpreted as: a. a series of plagues which would be visited on Nineveh unless its population repented b. a great statue which summarized the sequence of world empires until the establishment of Christ's kKingdom c. predicting the future greatness of Egypt d. foretelling of "a great ruler from the West"-AlexanderB.As shown on the video study, the Greek Olympics consisted of many competitions, the most favorite being: a. javelin throw b. horse racing c. wrestling and boxing d. long-distance runningC.The Greek political reformer Cleisthenes: a. wrote epic poetry b. established Athens's constitution with many democratic features c. preached equal rights for Athenian women d. became a tutor to Alexander the GreatB.Which of the following is not true of the Ancient Greek olympic Games? a. men and women could compete together in some events b. they were pan-Hellenic, or open to Greeks from any city-state c. they were a religious festival in honor of Zeus d. Victorious athletes were richly rewarded with honor and free mealsA.Which of the following was not an advantage for Athens in the war with Sparta? a. the best land army in Greece b. naval control of the Aegean c. long walls protecting harbor and city d. wealth and supplies from seaborne tradeA.Socrates believed that: a. there are no standards of truth and justice; only success counts b. wisdom lies in the endless search for knowledge c. Alcibiades should have conquered the world d. all philosophical questions are meaninglessB.Unlike Plato, Aristotle a. argued that one had to observe and study actual entities rather than seek out ideal forms b. believed that monarchy was the best form of government for a polis c. rejected the study of logic d. believed mathematics was the ultimate route to all knowledgeA.As shown on the video study, the Ancient Greek Olympics were competitions held among the city-states and many centuries; when the Romans conquered the Greeks: a. the games were discontinued b. all Greek athletes were put to death c. Rome adopted the games, expanding the competitions d. Greeks slaves continued to perform in game-like rituals as entertainment for Roman aristocratsC.During the Hellenistic period: a. ancient middle Eastern and Greek civilizations joined in a manner that changed them both b. the eastern mediterranean was dominated by Greek language and culture c. rather than citizens ruling independent city-states, kings ruled large kingdoms d. all these answers are correctD.Which of the following policies did Alexander not follow in his imperial rule? a. founding many cities to spread Greek urban life throughout the empire b. supporting intermarriage between Greeks and Asians c. obliterating all evidence of non-Greek culture d. recruiting Persian soldiers as part of a new combined armyC.Twice, Alexander defeated this Persian king, who fled but was eventually murdered by his own guards:Darius IIIWhen he reached this river, Alexander was forced by his soldiers to turn back:IndusA greek philosopher who believed in maximizing pleasure and avoiding pain:EpicurusThis greatest of ancient inventors devised the value of pi, discovered the principle of the lever, and designed war machines to hold off a Roman attack on his native city, Syracuse:ArchimedesThis Greek philosopher, remembered for his fables, training the next generation:AesopThe major river of Ancient EgyptNile RiverBased on the term from Latin meaning "wedge", this was Sumerian writing:CuneiformThis Israelite king fixed his capital at JerusalemDavidFounder of the Persian Empire:CyrusMinoan civilization arose on the island of:Cretethe Iliad and the Odyssey were authored by this Greek poet:HomerAn early Greek astronomer and mathematician:Aristotlein 490 B.C., the Athenians defeated the Persians at _______, inspiring an athletic competitionMarathonThe father of medicine, whose oath is still taken by today's doctors:HippocratesPhilip reorganized the Greek fighting formation, known as the _______, into a more flexible and mobile infantry force.PhalanxT or F: Cicero was an indifferent orator and author whose crude use of Latin forced him to rely on brute force to get his way.FalseT or F: Julius Caesar disappointed many of his supporters by remaining in office beyond the limit of his term and by adopting the trappings of a monarch.TrueT or F: Caesar Augustus's immediate successors were sober, competent men who ruled the empire ably.FalseT or F: The story of Cincinnatus saving Rome as dictator and then going back to his plow and continuing his life as a farmer illustrates the early Roman values of patriotism, duty, and simplicity.TrueT or F: Roman husbands and wives exercised equal authority in the family.FalseT or F: In the Second Punic War, Hannibal hoped that Rome's Italian allies would join his side, but most stayed loyal to Rome.TrueT or F: The Gracchi proposed reforms to help prevent a famine caused in part by the slave revolt in Sicily.TrueT or F: At the time of Jesus, the Jews in Israel were united-religiously, politically, and socially.FalseT or F: Diocletian attempted to solve the economic crises by freezing prices and wages and requiring that taxes be paid in coins, not goods.TrueT or F: The site chosen by Constantine for his new capitol enjoyed both easy defense and access to Eastern trade routes.TrueT or F: Communal monasteries provided support for those seeking spiritual fulfillment through solitude, asceticism, and self-denial.TrueThe city-state of Carthage: a. began as a Greek colony b. had an extensive trading network in the mediterranean and Africa c. was ruled by its great king, Gilgamesh, at the time of the Punic Wars d. won the Punic warsB.The Romans has many architectural and engineering accomplishments. Which of the following was not among them? a. use of concepts b. building aqueducts c. building bridges d. post and lintel constructionD.Julius Caesar achieved supreme power in Rome by: a. defeating Pompey and his senatorial allies b. agreeing to support the Egyptian ambitions of Cleopatra VII c. forming a secret alliance with the Senate and the optimates d. calling for electionsA.Rome completed its domination of the Mediterranean when: a. Constantine adopted Christianity b. Sulla defeated Mithradates c. Neuro defeated the Germans d. Octavian defeated Antony and CleopatraD.The trade route by which precious goods moved from China to the Mediterranean: a. Han Highway b. Red Sea c. Silk Road d. Suez CanalC.The reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian was notable for: a. the revival of the Senate b. vigorous administrative measures and reorganization of the empire c. military defeat by the Parthians d. a return to a simple, republican style of life by the emperorB.The emperor Constantine affected the future of Christianity by: a. ending the persecutions b. supporting the church by giving them tax advantages and returning property c. building the first great churches and making the holy land a place of pilgrimage d. all of these answers are correctD.In search of spiritual perfection, many early Christians: a. fled to the desert to live as hermits b. undertook self-denial, living on minimal food and sleep c. formed monastic communities d. all of these answers are correctD.The ________ were a neighboring non-Indo-European people who ruled over the people of Latium for about a century.EtruscansThe Romans called their government a(n) _______, which means the "public matter" or "public realm," and is based on representation.RepublicIn Roman society, the upper class was known as the _________, who claimed the right to rule through the Senate.PatriciansThis Roman office consisted of two chief executive officers, who presided over the Senate: _______-ConsulThe basic unit of the Roman army, consisting of about 4,000 men, was the ________.LegionQueen of Egypt who had a relationship with both Caesar and Antony:CleopatraWho was the author of the epic poem, the "Aeneid"?VirgilThe main structure at Rome for the display of gladiator fights and mass criminal executions:ColosseumThe apostle ________ was primarily responsible for carrying the message of Christ to the Gentiles throughout the empire.PeterThis Christian church father defined the nature of the church and its relationship to the world in his work, "City of God":St. AugustineT or F: The early people who dramatically forwarded the case for papal supremacy was Leo I.FalseT or F: The Merovingian dynasty in France was overthrown by Pepin the Short with the approval of the pope.TrueT or F: Justinian's greatest achievement may have been his Corpus Iuris Civilis, which has influenced Western legal codes to the present.TrueT or F: The famous "Arabic" numbers were brought to Islamic mathematicians from India.TrueT or F: Caesar Augustus's immediate successors were sober, competent men who ruled the empire ably.FalseT or F: The story of Cincinnatus saving Rome as dictator and then going back to his plow and continuing his life as a farmer illustrates the early Roman values of patriotism, duty, and simplicity.TrueT or F: Roman husbands and wives exercised equal authority in the family.FalseT or F: After his conversion to Christianity, Paul of Tarsus promoted dietary restrictions for Jews.FalseT or F: Rome's location high in the mountains was a problem Romans had to overcome in developing trade and agriculture.FalseThe Roman governors of the provinces were successful in preventing private tax-collecting contracts from extracting excessive money from the provincials.FalseT or F: Like most Roman reformers, the Gracchi brothers rose from the lower class by means of successful army service to challenge the rule of the aristocratic Senate.FalseT or F: Roman roads were so well-built that it was cheaper to send goods by land than by sea.FalseT or F: In the late empire, Rome's army become king-makers, leading to instability and frequent changes in imperial rule.TrueT or F: Peter agreed with Paul: Only circumcised Jews should be admitted to fellowship with the Christian community.FalseT or F: The Council of Nicaea upheld Arius's ideas on Christ.FalseT or F: St. Augustine and other Christian leaders taught that the new Christian state was not incompatible with the church, but should be active in supporting and protecting it.TrueAs discovered with our in-class exercise, the "Twelve Tables" represent: a. Rome's conquest of the Greeks, assimilating democratic ideals b. the influence of the Hebrews on the Romans c. Egypt's "intellectual conquest" of Rome d. a compromise between patrician rulers and plebeian subjects within Rome's RepublicD.Caesar Augustus improved the organization of imperial government by: a. directly controlling about half of the provinces and sending representatives to govern them b. creating a foreign service drawn from men of the equestrian class eager to advance c. eliminating private tax collectors d. all of these are correctD.As confirmed by our in-class study of Rome's "Twelve Tables" a. patricians and plebeians were not permitted to intermarry b. non-Romans were able to become full citizens with one year's residency c. the Roman Senate adopted the Ten Commandment, adding two uniquely Roman statutes d. men, women, and children all exercised the same measure of freedom and liberty, according to the Roman ConstitutionA.Which of the following is not true of the career of Jesus? a. he called for the overthrow of the Roman government b. he taught a message of peace, love, and care for the suffering and poor c. he was reported to have performed miracles and cures d. he was seen by his apostles to have risen from the dead after his crucifixion.A.Paul of Tarsus taught that all followers of Jesus: a. must be circumcised and follow Jewish dietary laws b. must follow Jewish dietary laws but didn't have to be circumcised c. needed neither to be circumcised nor to follow Jewish dietary laws d. needed to come and sacrifice at the temple in JerusalemC.In what way fix Christian behavior reshape Roman society? a. by rejecting celibacy b. by rejecting gladiatorial games and the exposure of unwanted children c. by banning the reading of the Homeric epics d. by banning the observance of the PassoverB.Justinian's efforts to re-conquer the western Mediterranean: a. lead to the complete restoration of the Roman Empire throughout the Mediterranean b. led to the reconquest of North Africa and a temporary reconquest of Italy c. failed because he was defeated by the Ostrogothic queen, Theodora d. were defeated by Attila the HunB.Muhammad believed that he was: a. the Prophet of God, rescuing the divine message from Christian and Jewish distortions b. founder of an entirely new religion c. an angel sent from God d. the successor to JesusA.The two greatest scientific advances in the Islamic world were in: a. mathematics and medicine b. medicine and physics c. chemistry and mathematics d. biology and chemistryA.According to Mark Noll, what brought about the Fall of Jerusalem? a. Assyrian terrorists invaded from the north, seeking to steal away the Judean province from Roman control b. Christian zealots rose up against the Jewish aristocracy, which called upon Rome for gain revenge c. Jewish zealots rose up against Roman control of the province, resulting in a seven-year battle d. Islamic forces swept into the eastern Mediterranean from Constantinople, targeting all Jewish and Christian centers of worshipC.The early Christian Church benefited from its connection with Judaism prior to the Fall of Jerusalem by sharing belief in: a. personal revelation, believing that divine revelation held the keys to life's most important realities b. written revelation, honoring sacred books and studying them diligently c. leadership, in the form of local elders, priests, and ministers d. all of the above are correctD.The Roman Republic established: a. a fully democratic government b. an oligarchy controlled by the rich patricians c. a socialist regime, with property being equally distributed d. indirectly controlled by neighboring Etruscan kingsB.During the era of Rome's Republic, Roman religion was: a. monotheistic b. filled with individual gods and goddesses for practically everything c. restricted to the worship of Jupiter and Juno d. a mystery cult, open only to those who had been initiated into the secret ritualsB.In the Second Punic War, Hannibal's strategy was to: a. blockade the Italian coast with the large Carthaginian fleet b. invade southern Italy with the aid of the Egyptian fleet c. swiftly cross the Alps into Italy and, by winning some big battles, persuade Rome's subject people to join his side d. entice the Romans to attack him in Spain, and defeat them there with his carefully prepared defensesC.The career of the Gracchi brothers initiated a period of civil wars in the Republic because: a. the brothers used political murder to subdue their enemies b. their reforms gave more power to the soldier-farmer elite than to other segments of society c. supporters of senatorial rule (optimates) became confrontational with supporters of popular rule (populares) d. all these answers are correctC.Paul's missionary journeys, in particular his evangelistic outreach on Mars Hill, demonstrates the effectiveness of Rome's: a. prison system, permitting Paul to enjoy considerable freedom while under house arrest b. legal system, since Paul was able to appeal his conviction to a Roman governor and thus be freed c. transportation system, since Paul traveled through the eastern Mediterranean, including Athens d. communication network, because Paul never left his jail cell in JerusalemC.An example of Rome's cultural influence in today's world: a. road construction techniques b. its calendar dating system c. sports stadiums d. coinage e. all of theseE.In order to improve the lives of the Romans, Caesar Augustus's: a. encouraged an opulent lifestyle of luxurious clothes and jewels for the rich b. favored the growing gap between rich and poor c. promoted legislation to encourage marriage, children, and traditional morality d. forced only non-Romans to serve in the militaryC.Constantine shifted the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, later called Constantinople, because a. he had a major quarrel with the Roman Senate b. Rome had been sacked by the Visigoths c. he wished to locate the capital nearer to vital military frontiers d. he felt more Greek than RomanC.In "City of God", Augustine argued that even though the city of Rome had been sacked by the Visigoths, Christians should: a. not worry, since the city would be rebuilt b. focus on the worthiness of their own souls because the faithful would dominate at the end of time c. despair, since this was God's punishment d. work together with the pagans to build the perfect civil societyB.Which of these advantages aided the spread of early Christianity after 70 A.D.? a. canon-acceptance of an established body of Scripture as inspired b. episcopacy-an organization of the Church with established leaders c. creed-concise statements of Christian belief d. all of theseD.According to Luke 2, the birth of Christ: a. is associated with a census ordered by Caesar Augustus b. was recognized, at least by Simeon, as making available salvation for Jews and Gentiles c. both A and B are correct d. non of these are correctC.The popes began to claim spiritual authority over the Christian church because a. some biblical writings-mainly a passage from the Book of Matthew-could be cited in support of this idea b. the Germanic invasions were so destructive that for a time, the bishop of Rome was the only bishop remaining in the West c. Constantine, when he moved to Constantinople, left the government of Rome in the hands of its bishop d. of a need to full a power voidA.The Byzantine emperor Justinian a. undertook a major codification of laws that has influenced law to the present b. was overthrown in the Nika riot c. tore down the Hagia Sophia because it was a center of heresy d. imposed and enforced draconian laws upon his subjectsA.What was Arius's view of Jesus Christ? a. co-equal with Muhammad b. a great teacher, but not divine c. the Son of God d. a prophet, similar to Elijah, bringing a new revelation from GodB.According to Mark Noll, the Nicaean Creed asserted each of these doctrinal standards except: a. Jesus was/is God, as part of the Trinity b. God the Son and God the father are one substance, One in the same c. Christ was both eternal God and born a Man d. God's Spirit entered Christ upon His baptismD.The "Struggle of the Orders" in ancient Rome resulted in: a. the establishment of a permanent dictatorship b. three main social classes: patricians, equestrians, and poor plebeians c. the sack of Rome by the Visigoths d. the massacre of patricians by plebiansB.The city of Carthage: a. began as a Greek colony b. had an extensive trading network in the Mediterranean and Africa c. was ruled by its great king, Gilgamesh, at the time of the Punic Wars d. won the Punic WardsB.Used for the bloody display of gladiators, wild animal slaughter, and mass executions of condemned criminalsColosseumThe trade route by which precious goods moved from China to the MediterraneanSilk RoadGathering of Christian leaders to address key issues of the faith (ex: proper content of the Bible)Council of NicaeaDuring the Republic, these were the upper class aristocrats of Roman society.PatriciansThe two chief executive officers of the Roman government, who led the armies and presided over the Senate.ConsulsSaved Rome while serving as dictator and then returned to his plow and continued his life as a farmerCincinnatusThe great commander of the Carthaginian military.Hannibal"The Senate and People of Rome"S.P.Q.R.Birthplace of Islam's great prophetMeccaClaimed to be holy and sacred by Jews, Christians, and MuslimsJerusalemThe Queen of Egypt who had a relationship with both Julius Caesar and Marc AntonyCleopatraThis Roman emperor was also a noted Stoic philosopher and the author of a book called "Meditations"Marcus AureliusFamous for her dedication to celibacy and establishment of religious institutionsMelania the YougerAccording to Luke 2, the elderly Gospel character promised not to see death until seeing the Messiah.SimeonAs shown on the PSI map, Islam's greatest conversion success in the century following the death of Muhammad occurred: a. in Eastern Europe and Russia b. across North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula c. in Sub-Saharan Africa d. throughout India and the Southeast IndiesB.When Charlemagne's forces defeated the Lombards: a. Scandinavia was opened up to conquest and conversion b. North Africa was liberated from Muslim control c. the Vikings abandoned their alliance with Alfred the Great d. the Pope and the Roman Church were no longer under threatD.The major problem faced by Alfred the Great in Anglo-Saxon England was: a. a major Danish invasion that overran half of England b. the resurgence of paganism among a partially Christianized population c. the lack of officials to carry out royal policies d. the growth of serfdom, which left the peasants discontentA.Which of the following was not a characteristic of the Carolingian monarchy under Charlemagne? a. a vigorous warrior-king who fought fifty-three campaigns, most of them successful b. an administrator who tried but ultimately failed to establish an effective and lasting mode of governing c. a monarch who promoted intellectual life, attracting some of the best scholars of his day to his court d. an attempt to conquer Constantinople to make Charlemagne a universal emperorD.The society the Vikings a. different radically from Germanic society b. resembled early Germanic society, but tended to be more violent c. was one of peaceful fishermen d. was influenced by Islamic societyB.The medieval serf was: a. a slave, usually from outside Europe, purchased to do menial work on the manor b. a person who had no obligation to any other person in the social hierarchy c. a servant, specifically of the village priest d. not a slave, but was bound to the land, forbidden to leave it without permissionD.The key process that laid the foundation of the feudal relationship was the: a. exploitation of the serfs by the lords b. paying of regular salaries by the lords to their vassals c. exchange of loyal military service for the granting of lands d. establishment of voluntary servitude by the serfsC.Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding noble women in the early Middle Ages? a. the church, by enforcing monogamy, enhanced the position of the wife in medieval society b. wives often managed their husbands' estates when the latter were absent on military campaigns c. they could inherit and hold land d. all these answers are correctD.During the early Middle Ages it was believed that proper health depended on: a. an individual's daily prayer and practice of religious meditation b. vigorous exercise and a diet composed mainly of meat c. proper balance of the body's "humors" d. near-constant consumption of plants and meatsC.On their way to engage the Muslims in the Holy Lands, the Crusading armies of Western Europe passed through: a. the Eastern Empire, further weakening its defenses b. northern India, thereby establishing the Silk Road c. the Mongol Empire, which aroused its anger against Europe d. the landed estates of northern Europe, breaking down the lord-vassal relationships in the regionA.According to the video study, Charlemagne's legacy can be seen in today's : a. European Union, with its use of unified coinage b. diverse church denominations, based on individual convictions c. practice in human trafficking d. pacifist movements, common among Mennonite and Quaker communitiesA.Which of the following was not a result of agricultural improvements like the three-fold system? a. a dramatic drop in infant and child deaths b. a near doubling of the European population c. an expansion of European settlements d. a growth of freedom in agricultural areas, with the lessening of serfdomA.The Jewish communities of the early Middle Ages: a. were almost exclusively rural b. began to engage in moneylending c. were usually organized into guilds d. were systematically expelled from almost all medieval citiesB.Thomas Aquinas believed that: a. there was no point in studying the physical world b. all Aristotelian ideas should be rejected by Christians c. faith and reason are incompatible d. Christian faith and reason, the latter exemplified by Aristotelian philosophy, were compatibleD.After becoming king of England, William the Conqueror: a. imposed a highly centralized feudal system in England b. retained all the Anglo-Saxon governmental institutions c. returned to France because he was only interested in looting, not in permanent occupation d. proclaimed himself emperor, successor to CharlemagneA.The most important achievement of the Capetian kings of France was probably: a. the defeat of the pope in the investiture controversy b. a successful invasion of England that overthrew William the Conqueror c. their expansion of royal authority by gaining control of most French provinces form the great feudal princes d. conquest of SpainC.Pope Innocent III: a. was able to reprimand kings of England, Aragon, France, Norway, and Poland and insist that they obey him b. preached the First Crusade c. was deposed because he embraced the Albigensian or Cathar heresy d. was murdered during the investiture struggle by orders of the emperorA.Ultimately the Crusades: a. permitted the Byzantine Empire to regain the power that it had prior to the Turkish invasion b. destroyed Mecca, delivering a major blow to the Islamic world c. failed in their purpose, with the last crusader outpost seized by the Muslims in 1291 d. established permanent Christian control over JerusalemC.As shown on the PSI map, the Bubonic Plague had considerably less impact in selects parts of Europe, d/t: a. access to the Atlantic b. access to the Mediterranean c. elevation d. the availability of medicines produced by Muslim scientistsC.According to the video study, Islamic scientific advances include: a. none of these, because Muhammad refused to allow education beyond childhood b. establishment of observations as part of the study of astronomy c. the use of letters as numbers, in contrast to the Greeks and Romans d. discoveries made in the New World by European explorersB.Which of the following is not true of the bubonic plague and its consequences? a. it showed that devastating diseases can move from animals to humans b. the disease caused a breakdown of law and order c. it resulted in the persecution of Jews d. once the plague ended, it never returned to EuropeD.The Great Schism: a. started when dissenting cardinals elected a second pope, who resided at Avignon rather than at Rome b. led to an increasing criticism of the medieval church for its seeming concern for money at the expense of spiritual matters c. saw most persons choosing to follow one pope over the other for political rather than religious reasons d. all these answers are correctD.An important immediate result of the Black Death: a. a major shortage of labor b. the end of the Hundred Years' War c. the transfer of the papacy to Avignon d. the RenaissanceA.How did newly-crowned Henry VII of England try to heal the breach between the noble factions? a. he lowered taxes on all of the nobles b. he gave the lands of nobles opposed to his rule to France c. he married Elizabeth of York d. he granted more powers to ParliamentC.Of the following literary and artistic figures of the late Middle Ages, choose the only correct match of person and work: a. Dante, a great Flemish painter, known for portrayals combination amazing realism with medieval symbolism b. Boccaccio: author of the "Divine Comedy", a literary masterpiece influenced by Scholastic theology and Aristotelian philosophy c. Chaucer: English author of "The Canterbury Tales", which provide a revealing look at fourteenth-century society d. Jan Van Etek: author of "The Decameron", a collection of tales told by Florentines living in a rural villa to escape the Black DeathC.The Ottoman janissaries were: a. tax collectors for the sultan b. nobles who ruled the provinces of the empire c. religious judges used to interpret Islamic law d. slaves raised to be warriors for the sultanD.What title did Ivan III take after establishing himself as the first new ruler of the Russian state? a. king b. emperor c. tsar d. popeC.The great intellectual whom Charlemagne employed to reform education?AlcuinAuthor of the medieval history, the "Ecclesiastical History of the English People"Venerable BedeThis medieval subject was bound to the land, forbidden to leave it without permission.SerfMedieval organizations of tradesmen within the towns.GuildRuled England, developed a strong administration, promoted scholarship, converted to ChristianityAlfred the GreatA group of Medieval monks who were accountable only to the local abbot and through him, to the pope.Cluniac OrderThis Medieval organization acquired a monopoly on the Baltic tradeHanseatic LeagueAfter becoming king of England, this French nobleman imposed a highly centralized feudal system in England.William the ConquerorAccording to our in-class exercise, the person thought to be the model of a "saint"Catherine of AlexandriaAccording to our in class exercise: In medieval context, the displaying of a family crest on shieldsbearing armsAccording to our in-class exercise: In Medieval context, the dividing of multiple family breasts on shieldsquarteredAccording to our in-class exercise: the preparing and serving foods along the lines of Jewish dietary lawKosherGave the most decisive and benefits shape to monasticismBenedictThis Medieval pope commissioned Jerome to produce Latin Vulgate BibleDamasus IMedieval pope whose vast accomplishments extended from diplomatic service, to missionary strategy, and to modeling humilityGregoryThe apparently strong German monarchy of the Holy Roman Empire eventually foundered because of: a. the growing strength of major independent nobles in Germany b. conflict with the pope c. the German emperors' continued involvement in Italian politics, resulting in almost incessant wars d. all these answers are correctD.An important way in which the medieval world differed economically from the classical Greek and Roman world is that: a. its population was far smaller-about 10% of that of ancient times b. it was able tot make better use of technology, with its water mills and windmills c. its agricultural system was far less productive d. its population was more than double that of ancient timesB.The goal of scholastic philosophy is the Middle Ages was to: a. reconcile faith with reason b. provide employment for professors c. refute the ideas of Abelard d. provide justification for monarchyA.The Norman conquest of England: a. had little effect bc it was only a change of rulers b. led to the investiture controversy c. led to the rise of universities d. ultimately remade England by making it feudal under French-speaking kingsD.T or F: the humanism of the Renaissance led to a flowering of education, but women were prohibited from reading and learningfalseT or F: The humanism of the Renaissance led to greater tolerance of Jews in the 15th centuryFalseThe French scholar whose teachings on the Reformation appealed to many of the well-to-do throughout Europe: a. Machiavelli b. Calvin c. Menno Simons d. MelchiorB.Florence's silk trade boomed with the: a. arrival of silkworms from China b. arrival of the Chinese silk loom c. rise of banking d. rise of Venetian tradeB.The northern European intellectual who became known as the "Prince of the Humanists": a. Thomas Aquinas b. John Calvin c. Desiderius Erasmus d. Thomas MoreC.T or F: Many non-European explorers-African, Asian, Muslim-pre-date Europe's Age of DiscoveryTrueT or F: The influx of precious metals from the New World was partially to blame for the Europe's 16th century inflationTrueT or F: a major characteristic of the Renaissance-its strong sense of individualismTrueT or F: Because of the secularism of the Renaissance, the church was not a major patron of Renaissance artFalseT or F: the great advantage of printing-accelerating the speed of ideas, increasing changes in Western societyTrueT or F: as our study of "The Demise of the Middle Ages" revealed, many Medieval Europeans lost confidence in the Roman Church d/t the Great Schism and more readily accepted a "protestant" messageTrueT or F: As our study of the "Demise of the Middle Ages" revealed, many Medieval Europeans were able to acquire wealth and fortunes as a result of the restored commerce with India and ChinaTrue