Terms in this set (18)

- Jefferson: advocated state and local politics but also helps to institutionalize party politics and caucuses which leads to an organization of congress. Henry Clay's consolidation of the power of the speaker caused congress to be organized--rises
- Jackson: resists centralization and federalization of power (veto). Causes dip in congress. But Daniel Webster came and illustrates the power of the senator and through the compromise of 1850 he helped organize and strengthen congressional power.
- Lincoln: by virtue of the nature of the war he expands the exercise of presidential authority/executive indirectly decreasing congressional power. However, in the post civil war period Thomas Reed organizers and consolidates procedures in the house by creating bills--causing an increase in power.
- Roosevelt/Wilson: creature of instinct who formulated a new idea of the presidency where the president goes to the people to help put pressure on congress to fulfill legislative agenda (dip in congress power).
- Seniority system: members assigned to a committee based on tenor of house and senate. as long as one stays in office they become top dog in a system causing people to stay in office much longer. this caused an increase in congressional power.
- Nixon: increases congressional power through losing power of impoundment (president used to refuse to spend money designated for a certain congressional cause, not funding LBJ great society program, but loses this power) and decreasing seniority system (Watergate babies loosened congress to be more effective and mobile)
- they are united in the general consensus that extraordinary powers should be used in extraordinary times. (yet there is different emphasis on the proper extent of congressional authority like building railroads or buying land.) Washington is the president setter in the powers (2 term limits or president's name or dress or state he should be maintained). he establishes the nature of republican presidencies. Jefferson takes a more modest view of the role of the president in respect to political involvement. he stops giving state of the union address and has a clerk read it instead. to Jefferson the president should be simply the administrative head. yet he still used his executive order like in the LA purchase. Jackson is democratic in sentiment like Jefferson. both Jefferson and Jackson believe in local politics, but Jackson was more robust with exercising his veto. he was a much more visible president compared to Jefferson. Lincoln is also a jeffersonian president but he believes in internal improvements like Henry clay. he is temporally moderate but does make use of powers that are questionable like the suspension of habeas corpus. but like Jefferson he allows congress to take the proper course of action if they disapproved of his use of power--which did not occur.
- They have a different perspective on the scope of the role of the president. Rosevelt believes is appropriate for the president to take extraordinary action in ordinary times if he felt that it was beneficial to the president. For instance, he saw there were significant issues (as seen in Sinclair's the jungle) and decided to take the matter into his own hands rather than leaving it up to congress by sending out an inspector to meat packing factories and proposing reform to congress. By sheer personality he presidents in this way. Wilson takes this notion and implements a theory that the president is the vision leader of the people who recognizes the need of the time goes to the people and sells them on this argument and uses his majority power to pressure legislative agendas to congress. FDR institutionalizes this in the NEW Deal with the entrenchment and creation of the administrative state where he makes significant jumps to delegate its legislative authority to the president with its regulatory authority. the president creates an agency and regulates it. the president is the leader of the people speaking for the people through the regulatory admin state economically. LBJ extends this further by declaring war on poverty (ex: medicare) and civil right (voting rights act).