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Introduction to Sociology Final
Terms in this set (40)
is defined as the systematic study of human society and social interaction.
Uses credit cards to finance nonessential possessions.
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
Is the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another.
Is the practice of judging other cultures by your own culture. Believing your way is superior to all others.
Piaget's Formal Operational Stage
12-adolescence, is characterized by the individual being able to think abstractly and evaluate different option.
refers to Erving Goffman's theory that we use to rescue our performance when experiencing embarrassing situations.
According to George Mead, these people are the ones who are most important in our development of self.
U.S. Poverty Line
Is established by determining the cost of minimally nutritious diet and is multiplied by three.
Is the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a world-wide basis.
Consists of the family, education, government, mass media, sports, military, etc..
Influence of one's family
Is the most important aspect of our racial identity and our attitude towards other racial groups.
In the past, the family is the most common
The Middle Class
Consists of public officials, individuals in management positions ... according to Max Webber
Believes in the freedom of all people and gives everyone equal rights. This is something Karl Marx believed would happen.
Is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, or society.
Describes industries in which transnational corporations play a central part in controlling the production process.
Human Development Index (HDI)
is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries in four tiers of human development. Terminology such as "underdeveloped country" is rarely used now.
A group of people who are blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes of others, and society problems they may not have control over.
Robert Merton's Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination
Is that the difference in a prejudice nondiscriminatory and a prejudice discriminator is the willingness to act on their feelings of bigotry.
A form of religion with strict adherence to the basic principles of religious doctrines.
Is the principle of cosmic order used in several eastern religions. In Hindu teachings it is the belief that the soul wanders until it breaks free into limitless atmosphere.
Is a monotheistic religion of the Jews. Basic beliefs include the belief that Messiah will return bringing justice.
Is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization of family is largely tied to traditions or customs. Gender, race ad class are interconnected to influence this type of authority.
C. Wright Mills (Stratification of Power)
Believes the power-elite are made up of leaders at the top of the federal government, military, and business.
What is viewed as a private problem can be viewed as a social problem.
The use of threats of harm and intimidation to attempt to bring either significant change or overthrow an existing government
Is the phase of the business cycle when the economy moves from a trough to peak. It is when business activity surges and the gross domestic product expands.
Is the social system in which males hold primary power and predominate roles of political leadership, moral authority, and social privilege.
Jessie Shirley Bernard (1903)
Was a sociologist and noted feminist scholar, she was a forerunner of the feminist movement regarding women, sex, and marriage.. she pointed out that though the husband may view his marriage positively, the wife may be less positive.
Conflict Perspective on Gender Stratification
Suggests that men, as the dominant gender, subordinate women in order to maintain power and control of resources.
Functionalist Perspective on Gender Stratification
Sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. Therefore gender inequalities exist as an efficient way to create divisions of labor.
Refers to anticompetative behaviors by firms in order to secure profits for the firm as a group.
A type of commodity whose market value is derived from the information it contains.
These are institutions in which gender is used as an organizing principle. Structures external to the individual that perpetuate gender inequalities. Most schools operate as gender institutions.
An economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized decisions.
An economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention.
The sociological approach that views groups in society as a stable orderly system. Each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's functioning as a whole. Major player in Robert Merton.
The sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources. This perspective differs from the other two in that it does not focus on the positive aspects of society that contributes to its stability but focuses on the negative, conflicted, and ever-changing nature of society. Major player Karl Marx
Symbolic Interventionist Perspective
The sociological approach that views society as the sum of interactions of individuals and groups. While the Functionalist and Conflict perspective use macro level of analysis, the symbolic interventionist perspective uses a micro level. Major player- George Mead
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