Chemistry Tests

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carbonate CO32-
add dilute acid, effervescence, carbon dioxide produced
chloride Cl-
acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate, white ppt.
bromide Br-
acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate, cream ppt.
iodide I-
acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate, yellow ppt.
nitrate NO3-
add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then aluminium foil, warm gently, ammonia produced
sulfate SO42-
acidify, then add aqueous barium nitrate, white ppt.
sulfite SO32-
add dilute hydrochloric acid, heat gently, test for sulfur dioxide presence
turns acidified aqueous potassium manganate(VII) from purple to colourless
aluminium Al3+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
white ppt. soluble in excess giving a colourless solution
aluminium Al3+ - aqueous ammonia
white ppt. insoluble in excess
ammonium NH4+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
ammonia produced
calcium Ca2+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
white ppt. insoluble in excess
calcium Ca2+ - aqueous ammonia
no ppt. or very slight white ppt.
chromium(III) Cr3+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
green ppt. soluble in excess
chromium(III) Cr3+ - aqueous ammonia
grey-green ppt. insoluble in excess
copper Cu2+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
light blue ppt. insoluble in excess
copper Cu2+ - aqueous ammonia
light blue ppt. soluble in excess giving dark blue solution
iron(II) Fe2+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
green ppt. insoluble in excess
iron(II) Fe2+ - aqueous ammonia
green ppt. insoluble in excess
iron(III) Fe3+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
red-brown ppt. insoluble in excess
iron(III) Fe3+ - aqueous ammonia
red-brown ppt. insoluble in excess
zinc Zn2+ - aqueous sodium hydroxide
white ppt. soluble in excess giving a colourless solution
zinc Zn2+ - aqueous ammonia
white ppt. soluble in excess giving a colourless solution
ammonia NH3
turns damp red litmus paper blue
carbon dioxide CO2
turns limewater milky
chlorine Cl2
bleaches damp litmus paper
hydrogen H2
pops with a lit split
oxygen O2
relights a glowing splint
sulfur dioxide SO2
turns acidified aqueous potassium manganate(VII) from purple to colourless
lithium Li+
red flame
sodium Na+
yellow
potassium K+
lilac
copper(II) Cu2+
blue-green
how to do a flame test
create a loop of nichrome wire, dip the edge in the testing substance, then dip the loop through a bunsen burner flame, observe colour change, decide which metal.
clean the loop in acid and rinse with water, then repeat with new sample
group 1 compounds colour
white
copper (II) oxide colour
black
colourless gases
CO, CO2, N2, O2, Noble gases, NH4