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What bone am i talking about: greater and lesser tubercles


What bone am i talking about: coronoid process


What bone am i talking about:styloid process


What bone am i talking about:greater and lesser sciatic notches


What bone am i talking about: greater and lesser trochanter


What bone am i talking about: medial and lateral condyles


What is the keystone of the cranium?


What constructs the bridge of the nose?

nasal bone

forms part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

inferior nasal concha

part of the nasal septum


what are the three STRUCTURAL classification of joints?

fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints

three functional classifications of joints?

diarthroses, amphiarthroses, and synarthroses.

which ones are fibrous joints?

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

which ones are cartilaginous joints?

synchondroses, and sumpheses

synovial joints

general structure

what are fibrous joints?

bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue; no joint cavity

fibrous joints: what are sutures?

they dont move, they are rigid interlocking joints , immovable joints for protection of the brain, they are synarthroses. allow for growth during youth , remember "middle ages" in middle age sutures ossify and fuse which was called synostoses.

fibrous joints: what are syndesmoses?

they are bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue) it is amphiarthroses (slight movable) large amound of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna.

fibrous joints: what are gomphoses?

peg in socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets.. they are synarthroses (immovable) found in your gums.. and idk if u have to know this but "fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament)

cartilaginous joints: what are the two types of cartilaginous joins?

synchondroses and symphyses.
these are bones united by cartilage. no joint cavity

cartilaginous joints: synchondroses

all are synarthrotic (immovable)
its the bar/plate of hylaine cartilage unites bones
becomes synostoses after plate closure.

cartilaginous joints: symphyses

strong , flexible amphiarthroses
fibrocartilage unites bone
vertebral discs

synovial joints:

bones separated by fluid filled joint cavity. all are diarthrotic
include all limb joints ; most joints of body

synovial joints all have what?

Articular cartilage,joint (synovial) cavity ,, articular capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments.

synovial joints: bursae

-fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes & containing synovial fluid
Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together

synovial joints; tendon sheath

Tendon sheath - elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

what aew two muscles attachments across a joint?

origin and insertion

what is origin

attachment to the immovable bone

what is insertion

attachment to the movable bone


slipping movements


movement in one plane


movement in two planes


movement in or around all three planes

what are the movements of joints

gliding, angular movements, and rotation

gliding movements

one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
ex. intertarsal joints

angular movements

increase or decrease angle between two bones.
flexion- decreases the angle of the joint
extension- increases the angle of the joint
hyperextension- excessive extension beyond normal range of motion

what is rotation?

turning of the bone around its own long axis. toward the midline or away from it
medial and lateral rotation.

example, rotation of the humerous and femur

special movements at synovial joints

Supination and pronation of radius and ulna
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of foot
Inversion and eversion of foot
Protraction and retraction
Elevation and depression of mandible
Opposition of thumb of mandible

what are the 6 types of synovial joints?

plane, hinge, pivot, condylar, saddle, ball-and-socket

what is cruciate ligament

either of a pair of ligaments in the knee that cross each other and connect the femur to the tibia

the knee

Largest and most complex joint of the body
Allows flexion, extension, and some rotation
Three joints in one surrounded by a single joint cavity
Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints

what are the supporting structures of the knee

Anterior cruciate ligament
Posterior cruciate ligament
Medial meniscus (semilunar cartilage)
Lateral meniscus

the shoulder

Ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement
Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula

shoulder stability

weak stability is maintained by: thin loose joint capsule.
four ligaments- carocohumeral and three glenohumeral
Tendon of the long head of biceps, which travels through the intertubercular groove and secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity
Rotator cuff (four tendons) that encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule

hip (coxal) joint

Ball-and-socket joint
Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum
Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket and strong ligaments

synovial joints: hip stability

Acetabular labrum
Iliofemoral ligament
Pubofemoral ligament
Ischiofemoral ligament
Ligamentum teres

what are the three options if joint is torn completely

Ends sewn together
Replaced with grafts
Time and immobilization

common joint injuries

Dislocations (luxations)
Bones forced out of alignment
Accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and difficulty moving joint
Caused by serious falls or contact sports
Must be reduced to treat
Subluxation—partial dislocation of a joint

what is Bursitis?

An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction
Symptoms are pain and swelling
Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs; excessive fluid may be aspirated

what is tendonitis?

inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
treatments and symptims are similar to bursitis


>100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.
Symptoms - pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint
Acute forms are caused by bacteria and are treated with antibiotics
Chronic forms include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA)

Common, irreversible, degenerative (''wear-and-tear'') arthritis
May reflect excessive release of enzymes that break down articular cartilage
By age 85 half of Americans develop OA, more women than men
Probably related to normal aging process

More cartilage is destroyed than replaced in badly aligned or overworked joints
Exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement
Treatment: moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams
Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and nutritional supplements not effective

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause (Immune system attacks own cells)
between ages 40-50, but may occur at any age; affects 3x as many women as men
Signs and symptoms include joint pain and swelling (usually bilateral), anemia, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular problems

Rheumatoid Arthritis

RA begins with synovitis of the affected joint
Inflammatory blood cells migrate to joint, release inflammatory chemicals that destroy tissues
Synovial fluid accumulates joint swelling and inflamed synovial membrane which thickens pannus that clings to articular cartilage
Pannus erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms and connects articulating bone ends (ankylosis)


Disrupt destruction of joints by immune system
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease pain and inflammation
Immune suppressants slow autoimmune reaction
Some agents target tumor necrosis factor to block action of inflammatory chemicals
Can replace joint with prosthesis

Gouty Arthritis

Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation
More common in men
Typically affects joint at base of great toe
In untreated gouty arthritis, bone ends fuse and immobilize joint
Treatment: drugs, plenty of water, avoidance of alcohol

what are the three types of muscle tissue?

skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

they differ in structure, location, function, and means of activation


muscle plasma membrane


cytoplasm of a cell

the prefixes of muscle are

myo, mys, and sarco

muscle contraction depends on two kinds of myofilaments what are they?

actin and myosin

cardiac muscle tissue

occurs only in the heart
is striated like skeletal miscle but is INVOLUNTARY

the structure of cardiac muscle cells

muscle fibers branch and interconnect, intercalated disc, thickening of sarcolemma. (thats what was highlight full info is below)

A. General Features
1. involuntary muscle
2. one, centrally located nucleus
3. mitochondria larger and more numerous

B. Structure of Tissue
1. muscle fibers branch and interconnect
2. intercalated disc - thickening of sarcolemma
3. cells connected by gap junctions
a. allow passage of ions like Calcium
b. makes adjacent cells electrically linked
c. allows for rhythmic, domino-like contraction

smooth muscle tissue

it is not striated and is involuntary

other unhighlighted info

Found in the walls of hollow visceral organs (except the heart), such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiratory passages
Forces food and other substances through internal body channels
It is not striated and is involuntary (controlled by the autonomic nervous system)

smooth muscle

Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body.

smooth muscle again

Composed of spindle-shaped fibers with a diameter of 2-10 m and lengths of several hundred m
Lack the coarse connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle, but have fine endomysium
Organized into two layers (longitudinal and circular) of closely apposed fibers
Peristalsis*** - alternating contractions and relaxations of smooth muscles that mix and squeeze substances through the lumen of hollow organs

skeletal muscle : the three connective tissue sheaths are what

endomysium, perimysium and epimysium


Endomysium - fine sheath of connective tissue composed of reticular fibers surrounding each muscle fiber


fibrous connective tissue that surrounds groups of muscle fibers called fascicles


an overcoat of dense regular connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle

what are myofibrils

- densely packed rod like contractile element
they make up most of the muscle volume

"the arrangement of myofibrils within a fiber is such that a perfectly aligned repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands is evident

which is the most deeply situated bone in the skull?

ethmoid bone

is vomer a facial bone? or cranium?


does the vomer form part of the eyes obit?


T/F Improper administration of CPR can force the floating ribs into the liver

The floating ribs are nowhere near the area where CPR cpmressions are performed. the xyphoid process of the sternum is more likely to be forced into the liver, instead of the floating ribs, because cpr is performed in the anterior part of the chest and the floating ribs are on the posterior

T/f ribs that have no connection to the sternum are called false ribs

false ribs either attach indirectly to the sternum or sntirely lack a sternal attachment. ribs that have no connection to the sternum are specifically called floating ribs.

T/F The axial skeleton includes bones of the upper and lower extremities and the girdles.

the axial skeleton includes the skull bones, the vertebral column, and the rib cage. the appendicular skeleton includes the upper and lower extremities.

T/f the bones of the forearm are also called the antebrachium.

the radius and the ulna form the skeleton of the forearm, also called the antebrachium

t/f the os coxae is formed by the fusion of four bones

the os coxae is formed by the fusion of THREE bones.. the ilium, ischium and pubis

T/F the fibrocartilage of the intervertebral disc is called the anulus fibrosus

the disc insulates between vertebrae and serves as chock absorber during movement

T/f the sacrum is composed of five fused vertebrae

the sacrum shapes the posterior wall of the pelvis and is formed by five fused vertebrae adults

T/F the thickest intervertebral discs are found in the sacral region

the lumbar and the cervical regions have the thickest inter-vertebral discs, to enhance flexibility

T/F at its proximal end, the humerus articulates with the ulna and radius

at its proximal end, the humerus articulates with the scapula

T/f the scapula articulates with the clavicle at the acromial end


T/F and injury to the lateral side of your ankle would involve the tibia

the lateral side of your ankle is made up of the fibula, and the medial side os made up of the tibia.

the linea asoera is found on the posterior of the femur

True. the linea aspera runs the midline of the posterior femur. it serves as an attachment for many of the thigh muscles

the clavicle is part of the axial skeleton

the clavicle is actually part of the appendicular skeleton

the ossa coxae make up the bony pelvis, true or false

the bony pelvis is the ossa coxae, coccyx, and sacrum

Mary fractured her pisifrom bone in a fall, what part of her body was injured?


where are the paranasal sinuses?

The frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones contain the paranasal sinuses.

how many lumbar vertebrae are there in a typical adult skeleton?

five lumbar

which bone acts a brace to hold the arms out and away from the body?


When you hit your elbow and say that you hit your "funny bone," you have actually hit a nerve that runs across the bone surface. Over which bone can this nerve be found?


how are the male and the female pelves different?

The pelvic inlet is heart-shaped in the male

what structures allow the infants head to be compressed slightly during birth?


Since mastoid infections may spread to the brain, surgical removal of the mastoid process was once considered to be the best way to prevent brain inflammation. Unfortunately, this also had the side-effect of causing ____________.

impaired head and neck movements

During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), it is important to place the compression hands over the sternal body but not over the xiphoid process so that _________.

there is little risk of damaging the heart

People who work at computer keyboards all day repeatedly flex their wrists and fingers and therefore become susceptible to carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition in which inflammation of tissue causes tingling and pain. Which one of the following treatments will be least likely to reduce the pain?

squeesing tennis balls in both hands in order to strengthen the wrist and finger muscles

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the parietal bones?

they form the base of the skull

the cerebellum of the brain is supported by the

occipital bone

which bone serves as an enclosure for the pitutary gland?

sphenoid bone

which of the following is NOT a cranial bone?

sphenoid bone
occipital bone
vomer bone
ethmoid bone
temporal bone

Vomer bone

most facial bones articulate with the

maxillary bones

the vomer and the ethmoid bones form part of the

nasal spetum

the movable base of the tongue is the

hyoid bone

how manylumbar vertebrae are there in a typical adult skeleton?


the ___ articulates with the hip bones of the pelvis


the spinal cord passes through the....

vertebral foramina

which of the following does NOT form the thoracic cage


the ribs that attach to the sternum are called

true ribs

which of the following is a bone marking of the humerus?

deltoid tuberosity

the arch that runs obliquely from one side of the foot to the other is the

transect arch

fontanelles do NOT

contribute to formation of the hard palate
its the maxillae and palatine ons that contribute to formation of the hard palate

old age affects many parts of the skeleton. which of the following is NOT associated with old age

the mandible conitues to grow and thicken

the scapulae articulate with the axial skeleton


the olecranon process would be found on the


what would you find located in the lacrimal fossa?

lacrimal sac

when standing normally, most of your weight is transmitted to the ground by the

talus and calcaneus

which of the following is NOT a part of the axial division of the skeletal sytem?

pectoral girdle

the pectoral girdle is part of the appendicular skeleton

at its distal end, the femur articulates with the


how many regions of the vertebral column are there?


the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, acral, and coccygeal sections

sutures connect all the bones of the skull, except the


the frontal sinuses are located

lateral to the glabella

which of the following cranial bones receives the condyle of the mandible?

the temporal bone

which of the following sutures is most likely to contain sutural bones?

the lambdoid suture
the lambdoid suture is the most likely suture to contain suture bones

where would dentist inject lidocaine to prevent pain in the lower teeth?

the madibular foramen

In a(n) __________, the vertebral column is formed from 33 separate bones.


Which of the following spinal deformities is quite common during late childhood in females


C7 is referred to as the "vertebra prominens" because __________.

its spinous process is larger than those of the other cervical vertebrae

The pectoral girdle does not quite satisfy the features of a true girdle because __________.

posteriorly the medial ends of the scapulae do not join each other

The jugular notch on the sternum is __________.

in line with the second and third thoracic vertebra, where the left common carotid artery is issued from the aorta

When a person attempts to break their fall with an outstretched hand, they often wind up with __________.

a Colles' fracture

Which of the following is a congenital abnormality of the appendicular skeleton?

dysplasia of the hip


bones connected exclusively by ligaments


"peg-in-socket-" fibrous joint


bones united by plate of hyaline cartilage


bones united mainly by fibrocartilage

All joints of the limbs are classified as __________ joints.


Muscle tone is a natural contributor to joint stability.


The role of synovial fluid is to __________.

lubricate joints

flattened fibrous sacs that reduce friction between adjacent structures are called


the term "non axial movement" means

slipping movements only

T/f extension is the reverse of flexion


__________ refers to movement of the radius around the ulna when the palms of the hands are rotated so that the palms are facing upward.


shrugging ones shoulders primarily involves

elevation and depression

which of the following is condylar joint?

knuckle joint where the phalanges attach to the metacarpals

note:The knuckle joints are typical condylar joints. The shoulder and hip are ball-and-socket joints. The elbow is a hinge joint.

Which of the following is NOT a synovial joint

Suture joint

Structurally, synovial joints are similar; however, they can be further classified based on the movements they allow. The six major categories of synovial joints are: plane, hinge, pivot, condylar, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints.

The oblique popliteal ligament

stabilizes the posterior aspect of the knee joint

which of the following contributes to instability of the shouldar joint?

the small size of the glenoid cavity compared to the head of the humerus

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