what are the three STRUCTURAL classification of joints?
fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints
fibrous joints: what are sutures?
they dont move, they are rigid interlocking joints , immovable joints for protection of the brain, they are synarthroses. allow for growth during youth , remember "middle ages" in middle age sutures ossify and fuse which was called synostoses.
fibrous joints: what are syndesmoses?
they are bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue) it is amphiarthroses (slight movable) large amound of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna.
fibrous joints: what are gomphoses?
peg in socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets.. they are synarthroses (immovable) found in your gums.. and idk if u have to know this but "fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament)
cartilaginous joints: what are the two types of cartilaginous joins?
synchondroses and symphyses.
these are bones united by cartilage. no joint cavity
cartilaginous joints: synchondroses
all are synarthrotic (immovable)
its the bar/plate of hylaine cartilage unites bones
becomes synostoses after plate closure.
cartilaginous joints: symphyses
strong , flexible amphiarthroses
fibrocartilage unites bone
bones separated by fluid filled joint cavity. all are diarthrotic
include all limb joints ; most joints of body
synovial joints all have what?
Articular cartilage,joint (synovial) cavity ,, articular capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments.
synovial joints: bursae
-fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes & containing synovial fluid
Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together
synovial joints; tendon sheath
Tendon sheath - elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
ex. intertarsal joints
increase or decrease angle between two bones.
flexion- decreases the angle of the joint
extension- increases the angle of the joint
hyperextension- excessive extension beyond normal range of motion
what is rotation?
turning of the bone around its own long axis. toward the midline or away from it
medial and lateral rotation.
example, rotation of the humerous and femur
special movements at synovial joints
Supination and pronation of radius and ulna
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of foot
Inversion and eversion of foot
Protraction and retraction
Elevation and depression of mandible
Opposition of thumb of mandible
what is cruciate ligament
either of a pair of ligaments in the knee that cross each other and connect the femur to the tibia
Largest and most complex joint of the body
Allows flexion, extension, and some rotation
Three joints in one surrounded by a single joint cavity
Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints
what are the supporting structures of the knee
Anterior cruciate ligament
Posterior cruciate ligament
Medial meniscus (semilunar cartilage)
Ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement
Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula
weak stability is maintained by: thin loose joint capsule.
four ligaments- carocohumeral and three glenohumeral
Tendon of the long head of biceps, which travels through the intertubercular groove and secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity
Rotator cuff (four tendons) that encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule
hip (coxal) joint
Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum
Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket and strong ligaments
synovial joints: hip stability
what are the three options if joint is torn completely
Ends sewn together
Replaced with grafts
Time and immobilization
common joint injuries
Bones forced out of alignment
Accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and difficulty moving joint
Caused by serious falls or contact sports
Must be reduced to treat
Subluxation—partial dislocation of a joint
what is Bursitis?
An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction
Symptoms are pain and swelling
Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs; excessive fluid may be aspirated
what is tendonitis?
inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
treatments and symptims are similar to bursitis
>100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.
Symptoms - pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint
Acute forms are caused by bacteria and are treated with antibiotics
Chronic forms include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis
Common, irreversible, degenerative (''wear-and-tear'') arthritis
May reflect excessive release of enzymes that break down articular cartilage
By age 85 half of Americans develop OA, more women than men
Probably related to normal aging process
More cartilage is destroyed than replaced in badly aligned or overworked joints
Exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement
Treatment: moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams
Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and nutritional supplements not effective
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause (Immune system attacks own cells)
between ages 40-50, but may occur at any age; affects 3x as many women as men
Signs and symptoms include joint pain and swelling (usually bilateral), anemia, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular problems
RA begins with synovitis of the affected joint
Inflammatory blood cells migrate to joint, release inflammatory chemicals that destroy tissues
Synovial fluid accumulates joint swelling and inflamed synovial membrane which thickens pannus that clings to articular cartilage
Pannus erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms and connects articulating bone ends (ankylosis)
Disrupt destruction of joints by immune system
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease pain and inflammation
Immune suppressants slow autoimmune reaction
Some agents target tumor necrosis factor to block action of inflammatory chemicals
Can replace joint with prosthesis
Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation
More common in men
Typically affects joint at base of great toe
In untreated gouty arthritis, bone ends fuse and immobilize joint
Treatment: drugs, plenty of water, avoidance of alcohol
what are the three types of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
they differ in structure, location, function, and means of activation
the structure of cardiac muscle cells
muscle fibers branch and interconnect, intercalated disc, thickening of sarcolemma. (thats what was highlight full info is below)
A. General Features
1. involuntary muscle
2. one, centrally located nucleus
3. mitochondria larger and more numerous
B. Structure of Tissue
1. muscle fibers branch and interconnect
2. intercalated disc - thickening of sarcolemma
3. cells connected by gap junctions
a. allow passage of ions like Calcium
b. makes adjacent cells electrically linked
c. allows for rhythmic, domino-like contraction
smooth muscle tissue
it is not striated and is involuntary
other unhighlighted info
Found in the walls of hollow visceral organs (except the heart), such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiratory passages
Forces food and other substances through internal body channels
It is not striated and is involuntary (controlled by the autonomic nervous system)
smooth muscle again
Composed of spindle-shaped fibers with a diameter of 2-10 m and lengths of several hundred m
Lack the coarse connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle, but have fine endomysium
Organized into two layers (longitudinal and circular) of closely apposed fibers
Peristalsis*** - alternating contractions and relaxations of smooth muscles that mix and squeeze substances through the lumen of hollow organs
Endomysium - fine sheath of connective tissue composed of reticular fibers surrounding each muscle fiber
what are myofibrils
- densely packed rod like contractile element
they make up most of the muscle volume
"the arrangement of myofibrils within a fiber is such that a perfectly aligned repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands is evident
T/F Improper administration of CPR can force the floating ribs into the liver
The floating ribs are nowhere near the area where CPR cpmressions are performed. the xyphoid process of the sternum is more likely to be forced into the liver, instead of the floating ribs, because cpr is performed in the anterior part of the chest and the floating ribs are on the posterior
T/f ribs that have no connection to the sternum are called false ribs
false ribs either attach indirectly to the sternum or sntirely lack a sternal attachment. ribs that have no connection to the sternum are specifically called floating ribs.
T/F The axial skeleton includes bones of the upper and lower extremities and the girdles.
the axial skeleton includes the skull bones, the vertebral column, and the rib cage. the appendicular skeleton includes the upper and lower extremities.
T/f the bones of the forearm are also called the antebrachium.
the radius and the ulna form the skeleton of the forearm, also called the antebrachium
t/f the os coxae is formed by the fusion of four bones
the os coxae is formed by the fusion of THREE bones.. the ilium, ischium and pubis
T/F the fibrocartilage of the intervertebral disc is called the anulus fibrosus
the disc insulates between vertebrae and serves as chock absorber during movement
T/f the sacrum is composed of five fused vertebrae
the sacrum shapes the posterior wall of the pelvis and is formed by five fused vertebrae adults
T/F the thickest intervertebral discs are found in the sacral region
the lumbar and the cervical regions have the thickest inter-vertebral discs, to enhance flexibility
T/F at its proximal end, the humerus articulates with the ulna and radius
at its proximal end, the humerus articulates with the scapula
T/F and injury to the lateral side of your ankle would involve the tibia
the lateral side of your ankle is made up of the fibula, and the medial side os made up of the tibia.
the linea asoera is found on the posterior of the femur
True. the linea aspera runs the midline of the posterior femur. it serves as an attachment for many of the thigh muscles
the clavicle is part of the axial skeleton
the clavicle is actually part of the appendicular skeleton
the ossa coxae make up the bony pelvis, true or false
the bony pelvis is the ossa coxae, coccyx, and sacrum
where are the paranasal sinuses?
The frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones contain the paranasal sinuses.
When you hit your elbow and say that you hit your "funny bone," you have actually hit a nerve that runs across the bone surface. Over which bone can this nerve be found?
Since mastoid infections may spread to the brain, surgical removal of the mastoid process was once considered to be the best way to prevent brain inflammation. Unfortunately, this also had the side-effect of causing ____________.
impaired head and neck movements
During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), it is important to place the compression hands over the sternal body but not over the xiphoid process so that _________.
there is little risk of damaging the heart
People who work at computer keyboards all day repeatedly flex their wrists and fingers and therefore become susceptible to carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition in which inflammation of tissue causes tingling and pain. Which one of the following treatments will be least likely to reduce the pain?
squeesing tennis balls in both hands in order to strengthen the wrist and finger muscles
which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the parietal bones?
they form the base of the skull
which of the following is NOT a cranial bone?
fontanelles do NOT
contribute to formation of the hard palate
its the maxillae and palatine ons that contribute to formation of the hard palate
old age affects many parts of the skeleton. which of the following is NOT associated with old age
the mandible conitues to grow and thicken
which of the following is NOT a part of the axial division of the skeletal sytem?
the pectoral girdle is part of the appendicular skeleton
how many regions of the vertebral column are there?
the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, acral, and coccygeal sections
which of the following sutures is most likely to contain sutural bones?
the lambdoid suture
the lambdoid suture is the most likely suture to contain suture bones
Which of the following spinal deformities is quite common during late childhood in females
C7 is referred to as the "vertebra prominens" because __________.
its spinous process is larger than those of the other cervical vertebrae
The pectoral girdle does not quite satisfy the features of a true girdle because __________.
posteriorly the medial ends of the scapulae do not join each other
The jugular notch on the sternum is __________.
in line with the second and third thoracic vertebra, where the left common carotid artery is issued from the aorta
When a person attempts to break their fall with an outstretched hand, they often wind up with __________.
a Colles' fracture
Which of the following is a congenital abnormality of the appendicular skeleton?
dysplasia of the hip
__________ refers to movement of the radius around the ulna when the palms of the hands are rotated so that the palms are facing upward.
which of the following is condylar joint?
knuckle joint where the phalanges attach to the metacarpals
note:The knuckle joints are typical condylar joints. The shoulder and hip are ball-and-socket joints. The elbow is a hinge joint.
Which of the following is NOT a synovial joint
Structurally, synovial joints are similar; however, they can be further classified based on the movements they allow. The six major categories of synovial joints are: plane, hinge, pivot, condylar, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints.
which of the following contributes to instability of the shouldar joint?
the small size of the glenoid cavity compared to the head of the humerus