Ecology study guide


Terms in this set (...)

Part of the Earth where life exists.
Large region of similar ecosystems with a similar climate and organisms.
All living and non-living parts in a certain area.
All populations in a certain area.
Group of the same species in the same area
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce offspring
Individual organism
last level of organization
Primary producer
First producers of energy in an ecosystem; aka, autotrophs; produce their own food and energy; solar energy is the main source of energy is the main source of energy in almost ecosystems.
eat other organisms for food.
Food chain
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten; always begins with primary producers, next is primary consumers, secondary consumers, and so on...
Food web
Complicated network of feeding interactions within an ecosystem
Ten percent rule
Only ten percent of energy is passed from one trophic level to the next.
Carbon cycle
During photosynthesis plants take it in and in cellular respiration animals give it off, Factories can also give off carbon, burning fossil fuels release carbon into the air(combustion).
Water cycle
Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
Liquid to a gas
Gas to liquid
Comes back down to Earth; usually in the form of rain or snow.
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen fixation and denitrification
Nitrogen fixation
Bacteria that lives on the roots of plants; convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into usable ammonia
Process in which bacteria take nitrogen from the ground back into the air
Phosphorus cycle
Takes the longest time; does not include the atmosphere
Conditions of the atmosphere
How the atmosphere behaves
abiotic factors
non-living parts of an environment ex. sunlight, water, rocks, air, wind, etc.
Living parts of an environment ex. plant, animals
Way an organism survives ex. frog eats fly, hawks capture mice and fish eat algae
Relationship between organisms in an ecosystem
One member benefits and the other is not effected ex. barnacles on a whale
Both members benefit ex. bees and flowers
One member benefits and the other is harmed ex. flee or tick on a dog
Primary succession
Change in an area where no previous ecosystem as existed..
Secondary succession
Change in an area where an ecosystem has already existed ex. forest fire
Tropical rainforest weather/climate
Warm temperatures year round; lots of precipitation
Tropical rainforest plants
numerous variety of plant life
Tropical rainforest animals
Toucans, snakes, lizards, jaguars, frogs, etc.
Savanna weather/climate
Warm seasonal rainfall (wet and dry)
Savanna plants
Multiple grass types and shrubs
Savanna animals
Zebra, giraffe, rhinos, antelope, and grazing herbivores
Desert weather/climate
Extreme temperatures and low rainfall
Desert plants
Cacti and other succulents
Desert animals
Lizards, snakes, and reptiles
Temperate Deciduous forest weather/climate
experiences seasonal changes in temperature; varying amounts of rainfall
Temperate deciduous forest plants
Deciduous (looses leaves) trees and coniferous trees
Temperate deciduous forest animals
White tail deer, numerous birds and snakes
Taiga Boreal forest weather/climate
Long winters; small amount of rainfall
Taiga boreal forest plants
Conifers (evergreen trees)
Taiga boreal forest animals
Bears, moose, and wolves
Tundra weather/climate
Extreme cold weather and extremely low rainfall
Soil is "permanently frozen"
Tundra plants
moss and short shrubs
Tundra animals
Artic fox, artic hare, and caribou
Ocean (marine) Plants
Coral, seaweed, algae, etc.
Ocean (marine) animals
Sharks, dolphins, squid, etc.
Freshwater rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams plants
Algae, water lilies, etc.
Freshwater rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams animals
Catfish, bass, salamander, and frogs
Mixture of salt and freshwater
Estuary plants
Mangrove and various grasses
Estuary animals
Crabs and various fish/bird species