Georgia Studies GMAS

Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge, the Appalachian Plateau
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Terms in this set (76)
Proclamation of 1763What does this describe? King George III creates borders for where the colonists could live. Colonists had fought and some died to gain land during the French and Indian War but they can not live on that land.Stamp ActWhat does this describe? Tax on all legal documents, permits, and paper goods.Intolerable ActsWhat does this describe? Four British laws meant to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party. Allowed British citizens to live in colonists' homes, closed Boston Harbor, cancelled the Massachusetts's royal charter, and allowed British officials to be tried for crimes in England instead of the colonies.LoyalistsPeople living in GA that were loyal to England.PatriotsPeople who wanted the colonies to be independent.Battle of Kettle CreekElijah Clarke led Georgia militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, Georgia.Siege of Savannah15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid siege to Savannah. Colonists and French were unsuccessful. The British controlled Savannah until the end of the war in 1782.University of GeorgiaAllowed people from all economic backgrounds to go to college. First state university in the United States.Articles of ConfederationFirst document that created a government for the United States. Created a weak government (could not collect taxes).Headright SystemEvery white male counted as a head of household and had the "right" to receive up to 1,000 acres.Yazoo Land SaleAround 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislators so they could buy land for less than it was worth. The public found out and protested; the legislators involved were voted out of office. This became known as the Yazoo Land Fraud.Land LotteriesAll white heads-of- household could buy a lottery chance and win land; millions of acres in several states were given away.Cotton Gin and RailroadsTwo huge technological Advancements that changed GA and brought cotton to GA.Chief Alexander McGillivrayWho does this describe? Signed the Treaty of New York giving up all land east of the Oconee River, but could keep land on the west side. These treaties were often broken. After the Battle of Horseshoe Bend the Creeks were forced to give up nearly all of their land. Chief William McIntosh gave up the last of the Creek Land with the Treaty of Indian Springs. He was later murdered for this.Missouri CompromiseMissouri entered the U.S. as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state in 1820. Outlawed slavery north of 36°20' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands west of Missouri.Compromise of 1850California enters the U.S. as a free state. Also included the Fugitive Slave Act which required northern states to return runaway slaves to the south.Kansas-Nebraska ActCreated the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. Those territories had right of popular sovereignty and could decide whether or not to allow slavery.Georgia PlatformThe North would support the Fugitive Slave Act and not ban slavery in new states in order to uphold the Compromise of 1850. Georgia was credited with preventing war and secession.Dred ScottSupreme Court case in 1857 Court ruled that slaves were not citizens and could not file lawsuits. Also, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not stop slavery in the territories.AntietamSept. 17, 1862. Bloodiest single day of the Civil War. Union Army defeated the Confederate Army (under the leadership of Robert E. Lee). About 2,000 Northerners and 2,700 Southerners were killed and 19,000 people were wounded.GettysburgJuly 1 to July 3, 1863. Union Army defeated the Confederates. Union suffers 23,000 Casualties (dead and wounded soldiers). Confederacy suffers 28,000 casualties.ChickamaugaSeptember 1863. Union troops were driven back to Chattanooga; Confederates did not follow-up on their victory. Union reinforcements later recaptured Chattanooga.Union Blockade of GA's CoastThe Union used naval ships to prevent the south from continuing to trade materials (such as cotton) with the British. Kept the south from having the materials necessary to continue to fight.Atlanta CampaignWilliam Tecumseh Sherman forced the confederate soldiers and citizens of Atlanta to retreat out of the city. His soldiers then proceeded to burn 90% of Atlanta.The March to the SeaPart of the Lay Waste Strategy - Sherman's Union army destroys everything in its path, 300 miles from Atlanta to Savannah. A sixty mile-wide area is burned, destroyed, and ruined during a two-month period. Captured Savannah in 1864.Andersonville PrisonIn southwest Georgia, was overcrowded, and offered poor food, contaminated water, and poor sanitation; 13,700 Union soldiers are buried there.Freedmen's BureauSet up to assist freed slaves. Assisted them with food, clothing, shelter, education, and with getting jobs.13th AmendmentOutlawed slavery.14th AmendmentGranted citizenship to freedmen and required "equal protection under the law" for all freed slaves.15th AmendmentGave all males the right to vote regardless of race. • Due to these amendments, African Americans (Henry McNeal Turner and other black legislators) won elections in Georgia for the first time.Bourbon TriumviratePowerful Democratic leaders, known as the "Bourbon Triumvirate" were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Their goals were to expand Georgia's economy and ties with industries in the North and maintain the tradition of white supremacy.Henry GradyFather of the New South. Wanted Georgia to advance to an industrial society that could compete with the north while also increasing the technology used in farming.International Cotton ExpositionDesigned to show the economic recovery that had taken place in the south by 1895.Tom Watson and the PopulistsWorked to protect farmers rights while also helping them in their struggle with the "wealthy" people.1906 Atlanta Race RiotString of violence by whites against African Americans over two days in 1906. 21 people were killed and hundreds were wounded.Leo FrankAccused of killing Mary Phagan. Very little evidence against him but Frank was found guilty and sentenced to death. Frank was taken from the prison and lynched by a group calling themselves the Knights of Mary Phagan. This group later reformed as the KKK.Plessy v. FergusonSupreme Court decision which approved Jim Crow laws - decision in place until 1954.Booker T. WashingtonPresident of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Worked to improve the lives of African Americans through economic independence. Believed social and political equality would come with improved economic conditions and education. Delivered the famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895.W. E. B. DuBoisProfessor at Atlanta University. Believed in "action" if African Americans and whites were to understand and accept each other. Thought Booker T. Washington was too accepting of social injustice. Civil Rights LeadersAlonzo HerndonPurchased Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company (a small insurance company) and managed it well in 1905. Now one of the largest African American businesses in the US. Worth over $200 million and operates in 17 states.±100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US armed forcesHow many Georgian's were in WW1?Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort McPherson, Camp Gordon, and Camp Hancock helped Georgia economyWhere was training held for Georgians during WW1?Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)Created jobs for young men. Men worked in exchange for housing, food, and money. Built many of GA's parks, sewer systems, bridges, etc.Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)Raised the price of farm products by limiting supply. Farmers were paid to produce less to drive the price up so each farmer made for money for their crops.Rural Electrification Authority (REA)Brought electricity to the rural (country) areas of the U.S.Social Security ActPassed in 1935. Helped to provide old-age benefits for retiring workers. Also offered insurance for the unemployed and disabled.Lend-LeaseAmerican policy, at the beginning of WWII, to lend or lease (rent) weapons to Great Britain and the Soviet Union.Allied PowersUSA, Great Britain, Soviet Union.Axis PowersGermany, Italy, JapanBell AircraftBegan assembling B-29 bombers for the U.S. Army. Over 28,000 employees helped to finish 668 planes.Savannah and Brunswick shipyardsBoth cities housed shipyards which were used to create cargo ships (nicknamed "Liberty Ships" by FDR).Richard RussellU.S. Senator. Worked to bring wartime opportunities (jobs) to GA. Helped to bring over a dozen military bases to GA.Carl VinsonU.S. Representative. Helped to expand the U.S. Navy. Much of this expansion (building of ships) took place at GA's shipyards.William HartsfieldServed as Atlanta's mayor longer than any other person (6 terms from 1937-1961). Presided over many building projects including expressways and parks throughout the city. After his death in 1971 the Atlanta airport was renamed after him.Ivan Allen, Jr.Served as Atlanta's mayor from 1962-1970. Only politician from the South to speak in favor of the Civil Rights Act. Helped to bring the Braves from Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Atlanta.Ellis ArnallServed as Governor from 1943-1947. Worked to reform GA's government, state universities, prisons, the tax system, and the state constitution. Also lowered GA's voting age. Lost against Eugene Talmadge in the 1946 Governor's race.Interstate Highway SystemMakes transportation through the city easier. Interstates, such as I-20, I-75, and I-85, go through the city of Atlanta. I-95 goes from Florida to Maine and I-75 goes from Miami to Michigan.Georgia's Deepwater PortsTwo major deepwater ports (Savannah and Brunswick). Goods (products) made in Georgia are frequently shipped to other parts of the world through these ports.Herman TalmadgeSon of Eugene Talmadge. Won the special election as GA's Governor in 1946 after the death of his father. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1956 (served until 1980) where he worked to create laws to help the rural regions of GA.Brown v. Board of Education1954 Supreme Court case. Struck down "separate but equal" concept; schools were to be integrated.Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)Peacefully challenged segregated bus system in Albany, Georgia. Nearly 500 people jailed in the boycotts/demonstrations. Biracial committee formed to study concerns of African Americans.March on WashingtonPolitical rally held in Washington, D.C. in 1963. Intended to help African Americans achieve more equality in the job market while also gaining more freedom. At this rally, Dr. King delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech.Maynard JacksonElected mayor of Atlanta in 1973 (1 st African American mayor of a major southern city).Lester MaddoxBecame governor of Georgia in 1967. Had forcibly turned black activists who challenged segregation at the restaurant he had owned. Very popular with Georgians who supported segregation.Andrew YoungAn aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Executive director of the SCLC. In 1972, won election to the U.S. House of Representatives (1st African American from GA to be elected to Congress since the 1860's). Elected mayor of Atlanta in 1981. Served as co-chairman of a committee that helped to bring the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta.Jimmy CarterBorn: October 1, 1924 in Plains, GA. Elected to the GA Senate in 1962 and 1964. Elected as governor of GA in 1970. Worked to streamline Georgia's government and improve education in rural areas. Won the presidential election in 1976. Worked to develop peaceful relations between numerous countries. Due to the Iranian hostage crisis and economic problems during his presidency, President Carter lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan.