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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 22 Test: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Terms in this set (52)
The scientists who laid the foundation for modern chemistry was
Robert Boyle and Anton Lavoisier
The first scientist to put forth the idea that there are certain laws of science that cannot be broken
Isaac Newton developed the advanced branch of mathematics called
Calculus (to help explain gravity)
The scientist who was tried as a heretic by the Italian Inquisition was
Galileo Galilei (cause of "The Dialogue")
Voltaire said that one reason why the people are unhappy is because they are
Slaves to their needs
The quote "man is born free and everywhere he is in chains" is by
Thomas Hobbes believed that
-people have a desire for power and they are always in conflict because of of this
-believes people are self centered, cruel, greedy, and selfish
-tyranny is better than anarchy
-people are born evil
Most leaders of the Scientific Revolution were from which part of Europe? (North, South, East, West)
Who would be considered an enlightened monarch?
-Catherine the Great
-Frederick the Great
I discovered the laws of gravity
Sir Isaac Newton
I was the astronomer who first viewed the moon and planets through a telescope
I discovered that the planets revolve around the sun in an ellipse (oval)
I was the first to say that the earth is not the center of the universe
I discovered the circulation of human blood
I proposed the idea of Universal Doubt
I used a microscope to view small organisms
Anton von Leewenhoek
I developed the Scientific Method of Study
Sir Francis Bacon
I was a Russian monarch who tried to make reforms but they did not seem to work
Catherine the Great
I said that men have made themselves slaves to their needs
I assembled the Encyclopedia
I proposed that government should be a "social contract" between the ruler and people
I was an Enlightenment composer who began writing music at the age of 5
I had many of my conclusions proved wrong by leaders of the scientific revolution
T/F: Thomas Hobbes believed that people should have a WEAK GOVERNMENT
F: strong government
T/F: THOMAS HOBBES and Rousseau both believed that people had a right to change the government if it did not follow the General will of the people
F: John Locke
T/F: The idea of UNIVERSAL BELIEF means that you should have an open mind when you begin studying something and not build on the faulty foundations of those who came before
F: Universal Doubt
T/F: Van Leeuwenhoek proved that living things CAN come from non-living things
T/F: Discoveries of the Scientific Revolution improved life in the 1600s and 1700s but the really DO NOT AFFECT our lives today
F: they do affect
T/F: Astronomers of the Scientific Revolution proved that the planets revolve around the EARTH
F: sun (Heliocentric Theory)
T/F: The Catholic Church REWARDED Galileo for his findings
THOMAS JEFFERSON got many of his ideas for the Declaration of Independence from John Locke
T: Thomas Jefferson
In order for the SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION to take place, people needed new technology and methods of study
T: Scientific Revolution
The SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION occurred as an offspring of the ENLIGHTENMENT
F: 1.) Enlightenment 2.) Scientific Revolution
Who believed only a strong monarch could provide peace and order?
Who believed that individuals should have natural rights of life, liberty, and property?
Who believed people, by nature, are cruel and only out for themselves?
Who believed people have the right to change their government?
John Locke, Rousseau
Who believed the people enter into a contract with the government?
John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau
Rene Descartes believed that everything except God and the human soul could be proven through (blank).
Thomas Hobbes believed that people are (blank).
Most kings and queens agree with the ideas of this philosopher
Galileo was tried as a heretic for teaching the theories of this man
Which 3 philosophers believed in the idea of a social contract
Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau
"On The Revolutions of Heavenly Sphere"
1543; Copernicus; Heliocentric Theory
Galileo; character is made to look foolish and represent Pope Urban VIII
Galileo; describes his findings such as sunspots, Jupiter's moons, and the rough moon surface
"The Principles of Mathematics"
Sir Isaac Newton
"Method on Discourse"
Renee Descartes; "Universal Doubt; use math to prove all except God and Human soul
Thomas Hobbes; social contract
"The Two Treaties in Government"
John Locke (social contract); 3 natural rights; life, liberty, property; government is obligated to protect rights
"The Social Contract"
Jean Rousseau; "General Will"
Denis Diderot; put together encyclopedia; contains general, scientific, and opinionated knowledge
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