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1060 - Resistance to Disease Packet
Terms in this set (53)
1st Line of Defense
Mechanical: Skin, mucous membrane, body secretions (saliva, tears, enzymes that kill harmful substances)
2nd Line of Defense
Phagocytosis: Process in which neutrophils and macrophages (vulture cells) engulf & destroy bacteria, cell debris or foreign matter.
3rd Line of Defense
SPECIFIC to foreign substances.
(T cells, antibodies, etc.)
Body's response to tissue injury.
HINT: disorder names that end in ITIS represent inflammation.
direct damage, chemicals, ischemia, cell necrosis, allergic reactions, physical agents, foreign body
What are some causes of acute inflammation?
1. Tissue Injury
2. Cells and platelets release chemical mediators/this affects blood vessels and nerves in the area
3. Nerve reflexes cause immediate vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation stimulated by chemical mediators (increases blood flow to the area)
4. Capillary permeability increases fluid to dilute the toxins
5. Fibrin mesh formed by fibrinogen to localize.
6. Leukocytes attracted to an area to destroy and remove foreign material, cell debris to prepare site for healing
7. As excessive fluid collects in the area so blood flow full of nutrients decreases which may extend the damage to the area.
The pathophysiology of acute inflammation includes:
Redness & Warmth, Swelling/Edema, pain, loss of function
Name the FOUR cardinal signs of inflammation.
Fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, loss of appetite
What are the general manifestations of inflammation?
Blood tests can determine the presence of inflammation but NOT localization.
What medial diagnostic test can determine the presence of inflammation but NOT localization?
If brief exposure, acute inflammation will often subside in..
If exposure continues, extensive _____ may lead to ulcers/erosion of the skin.
Less swelling occurs but more lymphocytes resulting in increased scar tissue, more tissue death/damage occurs.
Medications, RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation), Mild-Mod Exercise to increase blood flow
How can you treat chronic inflammation?
Lymphoid structures, immune cells, tissue that is concerned with immune cell development
What are the components of the immune system?
Skin tests, avoidance, EpiPen, Medications, Densensitization Tx
What are some treatments of allergies?
An individual develops antibodies to their own tissues, and these antibodies attack the individual's tissues.
A chronic inflammatory disease that affects a number of systems, difficult to diagnose and treat
Cause: Unknown. Related to hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors.
Diagnose: blood tests, urinalysis
Treat: Rest, avoid sun, treat symptoms, NO CURE
What is the cause of lupus? How do you diagnose and treat?
Facial "Butterfly" Rash, Poly arthritis, renal damage, chest pain, carditis, Raynaud's, depression, mood changes, seizures
What are some signs of lupus?
Chronic inflammatory disease affecting the joints. Bilateral. Marked by remissions & exacerbations, with each exacerbation further joint damage occurs. Autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune with a genetic factor with family predisposition. Seems linked to viral infections. Common in women.
What causes RA?
Diagnosis: Synovial Fluid Analysis
Treatment: balance of rest/moderate activity, anti-inflammatory medications, hot/cold tx., splinting, positioning, assistive devices, surgical intervention
How do you diagnose and treat RA?
Loss of function of one or more components of immune system.
Chronic infectious disease caused by HIV which destroys the helper T cells which causes the loss of the immune response and increases the susceptibility to infection & cancer.
Resolution, Regeneration, Replacement
What are the three types of healing?
Process that occurs when there is minimal tissue damage. Damaged cells recover, and then the tissue returns to normal within a short period of time. Example: after a mild sunburn.
In areas which cells ARE capable of mitosis. Damaged tissue is replaced by identical tissue from the proliferation of nearby cells.
Takes place when there is extensive tissue damage of the cells and they are INCAPABLE of mitosis. The wound area must be filled in and covered by some form of tissue. Chronic inflammation/complications result in more fibrous material.
1. Blood clot develops & seals area
2. Inflammation develops
3. Granulation tissue grows into gap-highly vascular and appears moist and pink, fragile, collage is produced, tissue turns pink to white. Scar-tissue not normal tissue, it is nonelastic and tends to shrink over time.
What is the process of healing?
Youth, good nutrition, adequate hemoglobin, effective circulation, clean and undisturbed wound, no infection/further trauma to the site
What are some factors that promote healing?
advanced age, poor nutrition, dehydration, anemia, diabetes/CA, irritation, bleeding, excessive mobility, infection
What are some factors that delay healing?
Depth of skin damage and percentage of body surface area involved.
How are burns classified?
Damage to the epidermis and may involve the upper dermis.
Involve the destruction of the epidermis and part of the dermis.
Full Thickness Burns
Result in destruction of all skin layers and often underlying tissues as well.
Shock, respiratory problems, pain, infection, metabolic needs
What are some effects of burn injury?
Initiate ASAP, ROM (reduce risk of contracture), AE, scar management (compression garments), reconditioning, pain management
What can OT to help burn victims?
Disease causing micro-organisms invading the body and multiplying.
Unicellular organisms that does not require living tissue
Intracellular parasite that requires a living host cell for replication
transmission of infection: touching a lesion, sexual intercourse
transmission of infection: contaminated hand or food, bed linen
droplet - oral/respiratory
transmission of infection: secretions are expelled from the body and inhaled by another person
transmission of infection: small particles from respiratory tract remain suspended in the air and travel on air currents, infecting any new host who inhales
transmission of infection: insect or animal serves as an intermediary host in a disease
_______ provides major transport system of the body for oxygen, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, cell wastes/helps body defense by transporting antibodies and wastes/controls body temp.
low oxygen transport
disseminated intravascular coagulation
neoplastic disorder involving white blood cells, malignant cells
cancer of lymph nodes, initial symptoms enlarged painless lymph node
multiple lymph nodes involved scattered throughout the body, wide-spread metastases, intestinal nodes and organs frequently involved
neoplastic disease of plasmas cells, malignant plasma cells replace bone marrow and erode the bone. blood cell production is impaired.
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