How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

126 terms

Obstetrics and Neonatology Ch. 9

All Terms from Chapter 9
STUDY
PLAY
gamete
mature germ cell, either sperm (male) or ovum (female)
ovulation
expulsion of a mature ovum from an ovary
conception or fertilization
beginning of pregnancy, when the sperm enters the ovum. Fertilization normally occurs in the uterine tubes.
zygote
cell formed by the union of the sperm and the ovum
embryo
unborn offspring in the stage of development from implantation of the zygote to the end of the second month of pregnancy. This period is characterized by rapid growth of the embryo.
fetus
unborn offspring from the beginning of the third month of pregnancy until birth
gestation, pregnancy
development of a new individual from conception to birth
gestation period
duration of pregnancy, approximately 9 months (38-42 weeks) which can be divided into 3 equal periods of time called trimesters.
implantation
embedding of the zygote in the uterine lining. The process normally begins about 7 days after fertilization and continues for several days.
placenta or afterbirth
a structure that grows on the wall of the uterus during pregnancy and allows for nourishment of the unborn child
amniotic or amnionic, sac
membranous bag that surrounds the fetus before delivery (also called bag of water)
chorion
outermost layer of the fetal membrane
amnion
innermost layer of the fetal membrane
amniotic or amnionic fluid
fluid within the amniotic sac, which surrounds the fetus
amni/o, amnion/o
amnion, amniotic fluid
chori/o
chorion
embry/o
embryo, to be full
fet/o, fet/i
fetus, unborn child
gravid/o
pregnancy
lact/o
milk
nat/o
birth
omphal/o
umbilicus, navel
par/o, part/o
bear, give birth to, labor, childbirth
puerper/o
childbirth
cephal/o
head
esophag/o
esophagus
pelv/o, pelv/i
pelvic bones, pelvis
prim/i
first
pseud/o
false
pylor/o
pylorus
terat/o
malformations
ante-, pre-
before
micro-
small
multi-
many
nulli-
none
post-
after
-amnios
amnion, amniotic fluid
-cyesis
pregnancy
-e
noun suffix, no meaning
-is
noun suffix, no meaning
-partum
childbirth, labor
-rrhexis
rupture
-tocia
birth, labor
-um
noun suffix, no meaning
-us
noun suffix, no meaning
amnionitis
inflammation of the amnion
chorioamnionitis
inflammation of the chorion and amnion
choriocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the chorion
dystocia
difficult labor
hysterorrhexis
rupture of the uterus
oligohydramnios
scanty amnion water (less that the normal amount of amniotic fluid, 500ml or less)
polyhydramnios
much amnion water (more than the normal amount of amniotic fluid, 2000ml or more)
abortion
termination of pregnancy by the expulsion from the uterus of an embryo before fetal viability, usually before 20 weeks of gestation
abruptio placentae
premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
eclampsia
severe complication and progession of pre-eclampsia characterized by convulsion and coma. Eclampsia is a potentially life threatening disorder.
ectopic pregnancy
pregnancy occurring outside the uterus, commonly in the uterine tubes
placenta previa
abnormally low implantation of the placenta on the uterine wall. (Dilation of the cervix can cause separation of the placenta from the uterine wall, resulting in bleeding. With severe hemorrhage, a cesarean section may be necessary to save the mothers life.
pre-eclampsia
abnormal condition encountered during pregnancy or shortly after delivery characterized by high blood pressure, edema and proteinuria, but with no convulsions or coma. The cause is unknown if not successfully treated the condition will progress to eclampsia. Eclampsia is the third most common cause of maternal death in the US after hemorrhage and infection.
microcephalus
(fetus with a very) small head
omphalitis
inflammation of the umbilicus
omphalocele
herniation at the umbilicus (a part of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall at birth)
pyloric stenosis
narrowing pertaining to the pyloric sphincter.
tracheoesophageal fisula
abnormal passageway pertaining to the esophagus and the trachea (between the esophagus and trachea)
cleft lip and palate
congenital split of the lip and roof of the mouth
down syndrome
congenital condition characterized by varying degrees of mental retardation and multiple defects (formally called mongolism)
erythronblastosis fetalis
condition of the newborn characterized by hemolysis of the erythrocytes. The condition is usually caused by incompatibility of the infant's and mothers blood, occuring when the mother's blood is Rh negative and the infant's blood is Rh positive.
esophageal atresia
congenital absence of part of the esophagus. Food cannot pass from the baby's mouth to the stomach
fetal alcohol syndrome
a condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy. Various birth defects may present, including central nervous system dysfunction and malformation of the skull and face
gastroschisis
a congenital fissure of the abdominal wall not at the umbilicus. Enterocele, protrusion of the intestine, is usually present.
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
a respiratory complication in the newborn, especially in premature infants. In premature infants RDS is caused by normal immaturity of the respiratory system resulting in compromised respiration (formally called hyaline membrane disease.)
spina bifida
congenital defect in the vertebral column caused by the failure of the vertebral arch to close. If the meninges protrude through the opening the condition is called meningocle. Protrustion of both the meninges and spinal cord is called meningomyelocele.
amniotomy
incision into the amnion (rupture of the fetal membrane to induce labor)
episiotomy
incision of the vulva (perineum), sometimes performed during delivery (perineotomy)
pelvic sonography
pertaining to the pelvis, process of recording sound (pelvic ultrasound is used to evaluate the fetus and pregnancy)
amniocentesis
surgical puncture to aspirate amniotic fluid (the needle is inserted through the abdominal and uterine walls, using ultrasound to guide the needle) The fluid is used for the assessment of fetal health and maturity to aid in diagnosing fetal abnormalities
amnioscopy
visual examination of amniotic fluid (and the fetus)
amniochorial
pertaining to the amnion and chorion
amniorrhea
discharge (escape) of amniotic fluid
amniorrhexis
rupture of the amnion
antepartum
before childbirth (reference to the mother)
embryogenic
producing an embryo
embryoid
resembling an embryo
fetal
pertaining to the fetus
gravida
pregnant (woman)
gravidopuerperal
pertaining to pregnancy and childbirth (from delivery until reproductive organs return to normal)
intrapartum
within (during) labor and childbirth
lactic
pertaining to milk
lactogenic
producing milk (by stimulation)
lactorrhea
(spontaneous) discharge of milk
multigravida
many pregnancies (a woman who has been pregnant 2 or more times)
multipara (multip)
many births (a woman who has given birth to 2 or more viable offspring)
natal
pertaining to birth
neonate
new birth (an infant from birth to 4 weeks of age)
neonatologist
physician who studies and treats disorders of the newborn
neonatology
study of the newborn (branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment of disorders in newborns)
nulligravida
no pregnancies (a woman who has never been pregnant)
nullipara
no births (a woman who has given birth to no viable offspring)
para
birth (a woman who has given birth to a viable offspring)
postnatal
pertaining to after birth (reference to the newborn)
postpartum
after childbirth (reference to the mother)
prenatal
pertaining to before birth (reference to the newborn)
primigravida
first pregnancy (a woman in her first pregnancy)
primipara (primip)
first birth (a woman who has given birth to one viable offspring)
pseudocyesis
false pregnancy
puerpera
childbirth (a woman who has just given birth)
puerperal
pertaining to (immediately after) chldbirth
teratogen
any agent producing malformations (in the developing embryo) Teratogens include chemical agents such as drugs, alcohol, viruses, x-rays, and environmental factors such as age or health of the mother.
teratogenic
producing malformations (in the developing embryo)
teratology
study of malformations (usually in regard to malformations caused by teratogens on the developing embryo)
breech presentation
parturition (act of giving birth) in which the buttocks, feet or knees emerge first
cephalic presentation
parturition (act of giving birth) in which any part of the head emerges first. It is the more common presentation.
cesarean section (CS, C-Section)
the birth of a baby though an incision in the mothers abdomen and uterus (may also be spelled caesarean)
colostrum
thin, milky fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and during the first days after birth before lactation begins
congenital anomaly
abnormality present at birth
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
a method of fertilizing human ova outside the body and placing the zygote into the uterus; used when infertility is present
lactation
the secretion of milk
lochia
vaginal discharge after childbirth
meconium
first stool of the newborn (greenish black)
midwife
an individual who practices midwifery
obstetrician
physician who specializes in obstetrics
obstetrics (OB)
medical specialty dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium
parturition
act of giving birth
premature infant
infant born before completing 37 weeks of gestation (also called preterm infant)
puerperium
period from delivery until the reproductive organs return to normal (appx 6 weeks)
quickening
the first feeling of movement of the fetus in utero by the pregnant woman. It usually occurs between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation.
stillborn
born dead