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Terms in this set (75)
Which of the following would not be considered a subarea of criminology?
The various subareas in the discipline of criminology are referred to as the:
Criminology of enterprise
A ____ measure produces consistent results from one measurement to another.
Which of the following is a basic element of classical criminology?
Crime is attractive when it promises great benefits with little effort.
____ behavior is any action that departs from the social norms of society.
______ is the written code that defines crimes and their punishment.
According to the _____ view of crime laws are created to protect the haves from the have-nots.
Which view of crime believes that criminal labels are life-transforming events?
Which was the first written criminal code?
Code of Hammurabi
The study of _________ focuses on the correction and control of criminal offenders.
victimology includes all of the following except:
calculating probabilities of becoming an offender
By the mid-eighteenth century, social philosophers began to argue for a more ______ approach to punishment.
The writings of __ and his followers form the core of what today is referred to as classical criminology.
Which of the following uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behavior is a product of social, biological, or psychological forces that can be measured empirically?
the phrase manie sans delire was eventually referred to as a
which criminological perspective is most closely aligned with the conflict theory that promotes that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict?
____ refers to a lack of norms or clear social standards
the _____ examined how environmental conditions influenced crime rates
in the contemporary criminal legal system the government expects to achieve all of the following goals except:
which component of the contemporary criminal justice system houses the prosecution?
the court system
the mosaic code is described as
the laws of the ancient Israelites, found in the old testament of the jude-christian bible
a declaration that expresses the prosecutor's decision to drop a case from further prosecution is known as:
which one of the following statements is not true?
most jurisdictions do not allow defendants awaiting trial to be released on their own recognizance, without bail.
a set if facts, info, circumstances, or conditions that would lead a reasonable person to believe that an offense was committed and that the accused committed that offense is known as:
the consensus view is
the belief that the majority of citizens in a society share common values and agree on what behaviors should be defined as criminal
the primary sources of crime data are:
surveys and official records.
_______ is a program that collects info about the incident, victim, and offender(s)
To address the nonreporting issues, the federal government sponsors the:
when did crime rates reach their peak in the US?
Criminologists look for _______ crime-rate patterns to gain insight into the nature of crime
some of the most important factors dealing with the ecology of crime are:
day,season, and climate; temperature, and regional differences
the _____ is the view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men
the liberal feminist theory suggests that:
female crime rates are traditionally lower than males bc of their "second class" economic and social positions
the peak age for violent crime is ___
18 years old
over the past decade the UCR arrest data shows that male arrest rates have declined and female arrest rates have ___
according to the _______. as the % of African Americans in the population increases, so does the amount of social control that the justice system aims at blacks.
racial threat theory
what term is used to describe the phenomenon that people commit less crime as they mature?
___ theories of criminal behavior have failed to distinguish between chronic and occasional offenders.
all of the following are examples of Part I crimes except:
offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal are known as:
according to your text, all of the following are true except:
crime peaks in adolescence and then increases rapidly thereafter
laws that require offenders to serve life in prison after they are convicted of a third felony offense are known as:
according to your text, all of the following are true except:
when the middle, and upper class people commit crime, it's typically violent and threatens the public and produces fear and anxiety.
the _____ collects the most important crime record data from local law enforcement agencies and publishes them yearly in the UCR.
federal bureau of investigation
______ asks people to describe, in detail, their recent and lifetime participation in criminal activity
____ uses multiple advanced computational methods, including artificial intelligence, to analyze large data set usually involving one or more data sources.
all of the following periods in time experienced an increase in crime rates except:
1880s to 1900s
which continent has the highest murder rates today?
speculating about the future of crime trends is ___; some criminologists have tried to predict future patterns.
which region of the country typically has the highest violent and property crime rates?
in the past, how did criminologists view crime victims?
as merely the passive targets of a criminal's anger or greed
the national crime victimization survey indicates that the annual number of victimizations in the US is about ____ incidents.
how many murders are committed each year in the US?
_______ is a condition whose symptoms include depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behavior and is a common problem, especially when the victim does not receive adequate support from family and friends.
victims of _ crime are the most deeply affected, fearing a repeat of their attack
people who are crime victims are __ likely to commit crime themselves.
the more serious violent crimes, such as rape and aggravated assault, typically take place:
after 6 pm
people living _ are more likely to be victimized
how many children are killed on school grounds each year in the US?
social and _ characteristics also distinguish victims and non-victims
men are _ as women to experience robbery
twice as likely
after what age does victim risk diminish rapidly?
the poorest americans are most likely to be victims of :
property and violent crimes
victim precipitation can be either:
active or passive
the basis of _ is that crime in not a random occurences; rather, victims increase their exposure to criminal offenders
according to _, the greater their exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence.
deviant place theory
routine activities theory involves an interaction of what three variable?
suitable targets, capable guardians, and motivated offenders
victims have the opportunity to work with a _ in order to help understand the operations of the justice system and guide them through the process.
how is a victim involved in the sentencing decisions of an offender?
the victim may have the opportunity to tell his or her experience and describe the ordeal to the court.
a number of criminologists including Hans von Hentig and Stephen Schafer, conducted studies that found that contrary to popular belief __
the victim's own behavior is important in the crime process and can influence criminal behavior by playing an active role in a criminal incident
which demographic is the most likely population to be victims of personal theft crime?
the phrase "cycle of violence" is mostly applied to concept that :
a crime victims may be more likely to commit crime themselves.
research shows that those most susceptible to a number of physical and mental health issues are children repeatedly victimized before the age of _
which of the following is considered an indirect or intangible cost of crime?
pain and suffering
rational choice theory has its roots in __
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