26 terms

Water resource

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Aquifer
underground water source
Dam and reservoir
a barrier built across a valley to interrupt river flow and create a man-made lake to store water and control river discharge
Desalinisation
the process of removing salt from seawater to produce fresh water
Drought
a long, continuous period of dry weather
Evaporation
the process of water changing from liquid to vapour
Grey water
recycled domestic waste water
Groundwater
freshwater source that is found beneath the Earth's surface
Groundwater management
regulation and control of water levels, pollution, ownership and use of groundwater
Infrastructure
the basic equipment and structures (such as roads, utilities, water supply and sewage) that are needed for a country or region to function properly
Irrigation
artificial application of water to the land or soil
Over abstraction
when groundwater is used more quickly than it is being replaced
Permeable rocks
rocks that allow water to pass through them
Pollution
chemicals, noise, dirt or other substances which have harmful or poisonous effects on an environment
Sustainability
actions that meet the needs of the present without reducing the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Water conflict
disputes between different regions or countries over the distribution and use of water
Water conservation
the preservation, control and development of water resources, both surface and groundwater, and prevention of pollution
Water deficit
when the demand for water is greater than the supply of water
Water insecurity
when water availability is insufficient to ensure the good health and livelihood of a population, due to short supply or poor quality
Water pollution
the contamination of water by substances that are harmful or poisonous to the environment, and make water supplies unsuitable for drinking
Water quality
measured in terms of the chemical, physical and biological content of the water
Water recycling
process of extracting and reusing useful substances found in waste
Water security
availability of a reliable source of acceptable quantity and quality of water
Water stress
when the demand for water exceeds supply in a certain period, or when poor quality restricts its use
Water surplus
when the supply of water is greater than demand for water
Water transfer
matching supply with demand by moving water from an area with water surplus to another with water deficit
Waterborne diseases
diseases like cholera and typhoid caused by microorganisms in contaminated water