Aquaculture

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Aquaculture
Controlled rearing of aquatic organisms
controlled rearing of aquatic animals
* Fastest growing animal industry

* Global market

* Direct competition with wild harvests

* Fish, shellfish/invertebrates, plants
physical characteristics
Temperature
Flow
Light
Clarity
Level/ Amount
Chemical characteristics
Salinity
pH
Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
Minerals
Nutrients
Biological Characteristics
Density of organisms
Bacterial populations
Phytoplankton/ Zooplankton
Earthen ponds
Channel catfish
Hybrid striped bass
Shrimp
what was the first domesticated fish?
Carp
what was the last domesticated sea animal?
Shrimp
Raceways
Rainbow trout
Ornamental fish
Cages or net pens
Salmon
Re-circulating tank systems
Tilapia
Underwater lease
Clams, shellfish (oysters, mussels etc)
Pond Production Advantages
free/cheap water
Filtration system not required
Some natural food available
pond production disadvantages
minimal control of environment
Predation can exceed 70%
Difficult to maintain inventory
"Off Flavor" hard to control
quality control issues
Earthen Ponds
Intensity of management determined by stocking density
Dissolved oxygen often limiting
threatening
Minimal control of rearing conditions
Most common method used for production aquaculture in U.S.
Raceway production systems advantages
Often use "free" water from river or other source.
Use high flows instead of investment in filtration systems.
relatively inexpensive
raceway production system disadvantages
Poor control of water source:
Quantity, contamination, disease etc.
May cause contamination with effluent
Crowding ...rapid disease spread
Cage culture advantages
Tidal flush provides "free" water exchange
Risk of contamination or disease introduction from local water
Easy to harvest
Cage culture disadvantages
Exposure to wild fish and predators
Risk of contamination from surface water, spills
Crowding...rapid disease spread
Recirculating system advantages
Complete control of environment
Elimination of predation
Very efficient grow out for suitable species
Treatment easier and less expensive than other systems
Recirculating disadvantages
Loss of power can lead to mortality within minutes
Biosecurity essential
High Tech, High Risk, Expensive
AIAO
System drained at end of production cycle, all fish removed
Disinfection and removal of sediment and muck
In Florida may get 2-3 crops per pond per year for ornamental species
underwater lease disadvantages
Storm damage
Rain (changes salinity), spills
Continuous
System rarely drained (ie. once in 10-15 years)
Following harvest, "top off" a pond with approximate number of fingerlings to replace fish removed by harvest
Industry standard for catfish production
food animals
* Fish

* Shellfish

* Shrimp (crustaceans)
Non food animals
* Zebra fish is like the white mouse for research
Restoration
* Stock enhancement

* Native plants

* Coral reef
where is the most production?
Asia
Leader of commodity
mississippi - catfish
Main aquaculture fish in FL?
tropical fish
Continuous harvest advantages
No "down time" to dry out pond
Simply replace the # animals harvested with similar # fingerlings
Practical for very large ponds
continuous harvest disadvantages
Loose track of inventory
Pond banks erode
Massive accumulation of organic matter
Maintenance (when required) is major
Major disease control can be very difficult
AIAO advantages
Better Control of Inventory
Avoid build up of organic material
Can produce multiple crops in same pond Much better for biosecurity
AIAO disadvantages
Labor intensive
More Effluent from pond
Components of fish health management program
Water Quality/ Life Support
Nutrition
Sanitation
Quarantine/ Biosecurity
Main water quality parameters
Dissolved oxygen
Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN)
Unionized Ammonia Nitrogen (toxic nitrogen)
Dissolved oxygen
Diffusion (atmospheric)
Agitation (wind/wave action or "bubbler")
Photosynthesis ("green" water only)
Thermocline
area of rapid temperature change that separates warm and cold water
primary Ammonia source
The fish is the primary contributor in aquariums
>85% ammonia excreted across gills
other sources of ammonia
In heavily stocked production ponds (ie. catfish ponds),feed may exceed 100 lbs/acre/day
In this situation, feed is primary source
Decomposition of organic matter (sediment diffusion)
Uneaten food
Heterotrophic bacteria
toxicity
pH & temperature dependent.
Adverse affects of ammonia
Increases ammonia level in bloodstream and tissues
Osmoregulationis affected
Blood pH increases
Need for oxygen increases
Oxygen transport decreases
Chronic low level Ammonia
Inhibits growth
Increases susceptibility to disease
Aquponics
fish poop in tank creates ammonia to grow plants