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Sociology 101 chapters 1-4

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Sociology
Systematic or scientific study of human society or social behavior.
How is Sociology different from other social sciences?
It has its own subject matter.
Emily Durhiem
French sociologist and is associated with the concept of social facts.
Social fact
A constraint or force that impacts or puts pressure on human life.
Natural sciences
Knowledge of nature.
Mechanical sciences
Knowledge of manufactured nature.
Social Science
Knowledge of human nature.
Three Main Types Social Facts
Anatomical, institutionalized and non-instutitionalized.
Anatomical
Contraint of nature.
Institutionalized
Contraint of institutions.
Non-instutionalized
Social pressures.
Examples of Anatomical
Natural environment, food, water, land, welfare, climate, altitude.
Example of Institutionalized
Law, family, economy, politics, media, religion and medicine.
Example of Non-Institutionalized
Fads (haircuts), crazes (bubble gum), panics huge gatherings & movements of people.
Four characteristics of all sciences:
Objective observation, passionate practitioners, systematic research methods and measurements.
Theories
A coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena: Einstein's theory of relativity.
Three Main Classical theoretical traditions
Structural, Conflict and Symbolism.
Characteristic of Structural
This approach conceptualizes different structures in society falling apart.
Characteristic of Conflict
Emphasizes the view that life involves major struggles and conflicts between classes of people.
Characteristic of Symbolism
This approach strives to understand the understanding the meanings the motivations people have for the actions they take.
Three contemporary perspectives
The feminist, queer and postmodern theories.
Manifest function
Obvious and intended functions of events and institution society.
Latent Function
Non-obivous and unintended consequences of events and institutions in society.
Example of Manifest Function
Getting a education.
Example of Latent Function
Football games, joining a fraternity and homecoming.
Social Analyst
Analyzing society.
Everyday actor
One who has the practical knowledge needed to get through daily life but not necessarily the scientific or technical knowledge of how things work.
Theoretical perspective in sociology:
Part of mastering different theoretical perspective in sociology is learning their vocabulary.
Sociological imagination
A quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social level.
Four types of causal research:
Inaccurate observations, selective observations, sample bias and illogical reasoning.
Example of Inaccurate observations
Perspective of the world.
Example of selective observations
Ignoring data or findings that might change the conclusions or outcomes.
Example of sample bias
A faulty conclusion based on a limited or unrepresentative number cases.
Example of illogical reasoning
A form of reasoning or theorizing that is irrational or illogical and that does not hold up to scientific scrutiny.
Independent variable
Causes something to happen.
Dependent variable
Effects of the independent variable.
Example of Independent variable
Smoking.
Example of Dependent variable
Lung cancer.
Culture
Whole way of life. (values and beliefs)
Examples variations in culture across societies, within societies and in societies overtime:
Saudi Arabia, Nevada (prostitution), civil rights era and body rituals of the Nacermeria.
Two main types of culture:
Material and non-material.
Example of Material
Artwork, tools and machines.
Example of non-material
Beliefs and values.
Ethnocentrism
A superiority complex of the part of people who think one culture is superior then others.
Cultural relativism
Evaluating different cultures in terms relative to their history and society.
Values
Whats right and wrong for a particular group.
Norms
Rules or guideline regarding social behavior and based on values.
Main types of norms
Folkways and Mores.
Example of norms
Public courtesies and fidelity.
Positive Sanctions
(Folkways).
Negative Sanctions
(Mores).
Subculture
Groups within society that are differentiated by its distinct values and norms and lifestyles.
Culture wars
Clash over the values and norms that should be held.