4th grade Science TCAP dictionary

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Terms in this set (...)

Absorb
To take in some of the light that strikes an object's surface.
Adaptation
A physical feature or a behavior that helps an organism survive in its habitat.
air pressure
The weight of air as it presses down on Earth's surface. (barometer)
atmosphere
The layers of air that surround Earth's surface.
axis
An imaginary line through the center of an object.
camouflage
The coloring, marking, or other physical appearance of an animal that helps it blend in with its surroundings.
carnivore
An animal that eats only other animals.
cell
The basic unit that makes up all living things.
cell membrane
A thin flexible covering that surrounds all types of cells.
cell wall
Found in plant cells, it is the rigid outer layer covering the cell membrane.
chlorophyll
A green material in plants that traps energy from sunlight- and gives leaves their green color.
climate
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time.
condensation
The change of the state of gas to a liquid.
conductors
Materials that negatively charged particles can move through easily.
crescent moon
The phase of the Moon when a thin part of the Moon's near side is sunlit.
cytoplasm
A thick fluid that suspends organelles found between the nucleus and the cell membrane.
delta
A large mass of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river.
deposition
The dropping of sediment moved by wind, water, or ice.
egg
The first stage in the life cycle of most animals.
electric charges
Tiny particles that carry units of electricity.
electric circuit
The pathway that an electric current follows.
electric current
A continuous flow of electric charges.
electromagnet
A strong temporary magnet that uses electricity to produce magnetism.
equator
The imaginary line that circles Earth halfway between the North and South Poles.
erosion
The movement of rock material from one place to another.
evaporation
The change of state from a liquid to a gas.
extinct
No longer living; when the last member of a species has died.
food chain
The path of food energy in an ecosystem as one living thing eats
food web
Two or more food chains that overlap..
force
A push that moves an object away or a pull that moves an object nearer.
friction
A force that slows or stops motion between two surfaces that are touching.
full moon
The phase of the Moon when the entire Moon's near side is sunlit.
glacier
A large mass of slow moving ice that flows down a slope.
habitat
The place where an organism lives.
herbivore
The animal that eats only plants.
hibernate
To go into a deep sleep during which an animal uses very little energy and usually does not need to eat.
insulators
Materials that electric charges do not flow through easily.
larva
The wormlike form that hatches from an egg; the second stage of an organism that goes through complete metamorphosis.
lens
A piece of curved glass, plastic, or other material that refracts light.
life cycle
The length of time it takes for an individual organism to complete its life cycle.
light
A form of energy that travels in waves and can be seen when it interacts with matter.
magnet
An object that attracts certain metals, mainly iron.
magnetic poles
The two areas on a magnet with the greatest magnetic force.
mass
The amount of matter in an object.
complete metamorphosis
The process in which some organisms change form in four different stages of their life cycles. egg-larva-pupa-adult
incomplete metamorphosis
The process in which some organisms change from in different stages of their life cycles. egg-nymph-adult
migrate
To move to another region when seasons change and food supplies become scarce.
mimicry
An adaptation that allows an animal to protect itself by looking like another kind of animal or like a plant.
motion
A change in an object's position as compared to objects around it.
new moon
The phase of the Moon when the Moon's near side appears totally dark.
nymph
The second stage of an insect as it goes through incomplete metamorphosis.
omnivore
An animal that eats both plants and animals.
opaque
A material that blocks light from passing through it.
organ system
A group of organs that work together to carry out life processes
parallel circuit
A circuit in which parts are connected so that the electric current passes along more than one pathway.
phases of the Moon
Changes in the amount of sunlight that reaches the side of the Moon that faces Earth as the Moon orbits Earth.
photosynthesis
The process plants use to make food.
physical change
A change in the size, shape, or state of matter that does not change it into a new kind of matter.
position
An object's location, or place.
precipitation
Any form of water that falls from clouds to Earth's surface.
prism
A piece of glass or other transparent material that separates white light into colors.
pupa
The third stage of metamorphosis in which the larva forms a hard casing around itself.
quarter moon
The phase of the Moon when half of the Moon's side is sunlit.
reflect
The method by which light waves bounce off the surface of most objects.
refract
The method by which light waves are bent by moving from one transparent material to another, such as from air to glass.
reproduce
To make more living things of the same kind.
revolve
To move in a path around another object.
root
The part of a plant that takes in water and nutrients from the ground.
rotate
To turn on an axis.
sand dune
A hill or pile of sand that was formed by the wind.
scientific method
The way scientists ask and answer questions about the world around them.
season
One of the four parts of the year-spring, summer, fall, and winter.
seed
An underdeveloped plant sealed in a protective coating.
series circuit
A circuit in which parts are connected so that the electric current passes through each part, one after another, along a single-pathway.
shadow
An area where light does not strike.
species
A group of living things that produces living things of the same kind.
speed
A measure of the distance an object travels in a certain amount of time.
static electricity
The build-up of electric charge on an object.
stem
The part of a plant that carries food, water, and nutrients to and from the roots and leaves.
temperate climate
Places that have warm, dry summers and cold, wet winters, and are located between the tropical zone and the polar zones.
tissue
A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a job, such as muscle tissue and stomach tissue.
translucent
A material that allows some light to pass through it, but scatters the light in many directions.
transparent
A material that allows light to pass through it.
tropical climate
Places with a climate that is hot and rainy throughout the year, and located directly north and south of the equator.
vacuoles
Membrane-bound sacs that are filled with fluid.
velocity
A measure of speed in a certain direction.
volume
The amount of space that matter takes up.
waning moon
The phases of the Moon when a decreasing amount of the Moon's near side is sunlit.
water cycle
The movement of water into the air as water vapor and back to Earth's surface as precipitation.
waxing moon
The phases of the Moon when an increasing amount of the Moon's near side is sunlit.
weather
The conditions of the atmosphere at a certain place and time.
weathering
The slow wearing away of rock into smaller pieces, by ice, plant roots, moving water, wind, or chemicals.
weight
The measure of the pull of gravity on an object.