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Mid Term (Political Science)
Terms in this set (108)
When our beliefs are challenged by strong evidence before us, some of us will choose to filter out or ignore information that conflicts with our preconceived ideas. Psychologists refer to this as
Which perpetuated myth had a significant influence on President George Bush's decisions concerning the use of military force against Iraq?
the Viet Nam war myth
Shortly after the establishment of the republic, Congress developed a set of rules for establishing territorial governments and selling land referred to as
the Northwest Ordinance.
Aristotle believed that the right form of government was one that
serves the common interest of the people.
Ideological differences in many Western European democracies are clearly discerned in the differences between their
Many observers attribute the growing popularity of the populist and libertarian ideologies to
the declining relevance of liberalism and conservatism.
In U.S. political ideology, the two central issues regarding how much government should do are concerned with intervention in
economic and private affairs
As destruction threatens our forests and tainted air and water leaves Americans vulnerable to sickness and disease, we have turned to government for assistance in matters of
In the United States today, democracy is defined as a belief in government where authority is based on
the consent and will of the majority.
One of the goals of government in the United States is to
promote equality among members of society.
In politics, an ideology can best be described as
a conceptual tool used by citizens to prioritize what government could or should do
An ideal situation for those who believe strongly in a democratic bureaucracy would be
for each citizen to be able to exercise the same degree of influence over governmental actions
Most complex societies have found that to ensure effective governing, they need
intermediate levels of government as well.
One political candidate argued that the government had no business limiting the absolute freedom of Americans in either economic or personal affairs. You could conclude that her ideas were those of a
A government institution that relies upon reasoned analysis in order to resolve disputes and solve problems is
the judicial system
The powerful words of the Preamble to the Constitution begin with
"We the People."
What type of congress was established under the Virginia Plan?
The convention in Philadelphia attracted ____ delegates from the states.
The first ____ Amendments to the Constitution constitute the Bill of Rights.
Which of the following statements concerning government under the Articles is incorrect?
The legislature was bicameral.
According to Rousseau's concept of popular sovereignty, the best kind of government is one that
reflects the "general will" of the people
The fact that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land expresses the principle of
In what year was the final draft of the Constitution given to the delegates for their acceptance or rejection?
As a founding principle of the American constitutional system, republicanism refers to
a government consisting of popularly elected officials.
The rule-of-law in American government means that
government officials are subject to the law.
The impeachment process involves having the ____ bring charges against a public official who is then tried before the ____.
U.S. House of Representatives; U.S. Senate
Over half of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were
trained in the law.
The doctrine of republicanism was introduced by the framers in order to prevent
rule by ordinary citizens
According to the decision in McCulloch v. Maryland, the necessary and proper clause gives
Congress implied power to charter a bank.
The supremacy clause of the Constitution says that
the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
In 2000, the Court upheld the notion of a buffer zone around ____ in which speech could be limited.
health care facilities
If police officers were searching everyone leaving a video store and they had no search warrant, you could refuse to be searched on the basis of your constitutional rights guaranteed by which amendment?
The Court's decision in the Virginia Military Institute case is important because it seems to have
applied the strict scrutiny standard to gender discrimination
The Supreme Court has ____ voucher plans that provide state funds to parents who want to send their child to a school other than the assigned public school.
Searches can be conducted without a warrant if
all of these
The Religious Restoration Act of 1993 overturned the Supreme Court ruling in Employment Division v. Smith by saying that
laws may not restrict the exercise of religion unless they further some compelling government interest.
In the Wisconsin v. Yoder case dealing with compulsory school attendance for Amish children, the Supreme Court ruled that states
may not "unduly burden" the free exercise of religion.
Many of the goals embodied in Proposition 187 were accepted by the federal provision of
the Welfare Reform Act.
Probable cause is a test that applies to cases involving
issuance of a search warrant
The current stance of the Supreme Court regarding medically-assisted suicide is that it
is a matter best left up to the states.
Which statement best summarizes the Court's decision in the Furman case?
It ruled the death penalty unconstitutional as it was being applied.
The 2006 case Hudson v. Michigan was most notable because the police engaged in a search without
The First Amendment, written in absolute terms, is more likely to be subject to the myth of guarantees
of absolute liberty
If people were denied service in a restaurant because of their race, their rights would be violated according to
the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
In the 1947 case where the Supreme Court first interpreted the establishment clause, it allowed a New Jersey plan that
provided free bus transportation for children attending parochial schools.
Political parties began in the United States
as a result of early political divisions and differences of opinion.
Independents are individuals who defy
Compared with most western European democracies, the two major parties in the United States are
During the twentieth century, a realigning election was marked by the election of
Which of the following voter combinations fits best into the Democratic Party coalition?
Catholic, urban laborer, over 50
When independents with leanings toward one party or the other are included, about ____ percent of the electorate identify to some degree with either the Democratic or Republican party.
Defining the concept of a party, its responsibilities and the laws that regulate it are left to
the individual states
In recent years, bipartisanship came into play strongly following
the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Some believe that ____are responsible for the two-party system in the U.S.
the rules that govern our electoral system
The idea of the party as a three-headed giant is that the major political parties in the United States are composed of
organizers, voters, and individuals who are elected or appointed to office under a party label.
A political party platform is a(n)
statement of party policy goals.
Party identification is not a determining factor in
voter registration ability
The role of the national party organizations is that of
organizing national conventions and supporting candidates for major office.
A precinct is
the smallest local voting district.
The role of political parties in U.S. elections has changed because parties have
come to represent many individuals not adequately served by other organizations.
In political campaigns today, ____ has recently emerged as a valuable tool in delivering information to the public.
George W. Bush had a minority of the popular vote, but was elected to the presidency because of
a majority of the vote of the electoral college.
Campaign contributions by corporations or unions spent on party building activities are termed
Which president obtained office despite the fact that he had fewer popular votes than his opponent?
George W. Bush
In 1971, the ____ created a system to monitor and set limits on campaign contributions by individuals, as well as provide public financing for presidential campaigns.
Federal Election Campaign Act
In a 2010 Supreme Court case, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, the court
struck down a part of the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Act by stating that corporations and unions may spend freely to support or oppose candidates for president or congress.
The presidential election of 2000 revealed a problem with the electoral college system. That problem, which could arise again, was that
the winner in the electoral college was not the winner in the popular vote of the general election.
Under the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002, soft money contributions are
banned to national political parties.
The money factor in political campaigns affects more than just the election outcome, as it
often prevents many citizens from running for office.
The text suggests advertising is probably effective at
encouraging a candidate's supporters to go to the polls.
Which of the following is true of group voting patterns in American elections?
Better-educated people are more likely to vote than poorly educated people.
Congress reduced barriers to minority voting by passing the
1965 Voting Rights Act.
Some people say that money buys elections. A more realistic statement would be that money
is necessary but not sufficient for victory.
The most recent major piece of legislation dealing with campaign finance reform was signed into law by President
The year 2010 was significant for both parties because of record-setting campaign spending, which exceeded more than
The text implies that a majority of Americans believe in the myth that most interest groups are
a corrupting influence in politics.
When public interest groups lobby via a letter-writing campaign, this is considered ____ lobbying.
Congress first required lobbyists to register with the House of Representatives in
A PAC is a(n)
organization established by interest groups, unaffiliated groups, or individuals to make contributions to political candidates.
Many Americans perceive lobbyists as
"wheeler-dealers" who attempt to buy members of Congress.
The membership of interest groups is said to be biased toward
the upper half of the socioeconomic ladder.
There are about ____ registered lobbyists in Washington.
Coalition building for interest groups means
bringing together different groups for a common lobbying effort.
Which of the following statements regarding 527s is incorrect?
All must file disclosure reports with the FEC.
Congress first required lobbyists to register with the House of Representatives in
An example of a single-issue activist group would be
the National Rifle Association.
One group that had major success in changing the law through litigation was the
Some large cities, such as Chicago and Los Angeles, employ lobbyists in order to
ensure that they receive their share of federal funding.
Lobbyists are governed by one major rule. That rule is to
be credible and never lie.
According to the Federal Election Campaign Act (left unchanged by the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002), a PAC
can give no more than $5,000 to a candidate per election.
Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution is important because
all the above.
Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution is often called the ___ clause.
all the above.
In designing the Constitution, the Framers were greatly influenced by the writings of ___.
Baron de Montesquieu
The Framers' concerns about democracy were reflected in the adoption of the principle of ___.
Among current members of the U.S. Supreme Court, the "originalism" approach is most closely associated with the views of Justice ___.
The principle of "national supremacy" is based ___.
on Article VI of the Constitution.
Which of the following was NOT the result of a Constitutional amendment?
prohibiton of ex post facto laws
The Federalist Papers were written by
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
During the first years under the Constitution, a state-centered view of federalism was actively advocated by
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
The system of grant-in-aid to the states has its historical roots in
the Morill Act of 1862
Grants given to the states that were to be spent for specific purposes and only if the state met certain requirements are called ___.
Model Cities was a program of grants that
was aimed at dealing with local economic and social problems.
A central complaint of states and local governments during the 1980s and 1990s was
The major intergovernmental relations initiative of President George W. Bush was
the use of faith-based organizations in the grant system
In the 1992 case of New York v. United States, the Supreme Court held that
the national government could not simply compel states to take policy actions.
Organizations that represent the interests of state and local governmental officials are called
Chief Justice John Marshall's opinion in Barron v. Baltimore ruled that
none of the liberties mentioned in the Bill of Rights applied to the states.
Those who hold the accommodationist interpretation of the First Amendment believe that
the Constitution merely bars Congress from establishing an official church.
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